The event-focused interview: what is it, why is it useful, and how is it used?

There has been longstanding interest in understanding how people think, feel, and behave in sport and exercise activities. Although naturalistic recordings, momentary assessments, and post-event questionnaires have been employed to capture information on people’s experiences, these methods can have some shortcomings for researchers interested in advancing knowledge of certain social-psychological phenomena, especially in natural settings. The purpose of this paper is to describe the event-focused interview method and outline its utility for researchers who are interested in capturing rich, in-depth information on episodic phenomena, such as particular moments, events, psychological states, and experiences. First, we describe the event-focused interview method and the background to its development. Second, we highlight the limitations of naturalistic recordings, existing momentary assessment methods, and post-event questionnaires for certain types of research, before explaining why event-focused interviews can add to the suite of methods researchers use to obtain information on episodic phenomena in specific sport and exercise activities. Third, we provide guidance on how the event-focused interview method can be implemented, using illustrative examples from several recent event-focused interview studies. Fourth, to guide researchers in future, we identify some methodological dilemmas and considerations for applying this method. We conclude by outlining several methodological avenues that could be employed in future event-focused interview studies. Overall, we propose that the event-focused interview method may be a promising addition to the collection of methods available to researchers interested in generating new theoretical and practical knowledge about episodic phenomena in sport and exercise.


Trish Jackman, University of Lincoln, School of Sport and Exercise Science

M. J Schweickle, University of Wollongong, School of Psychology

S.G. Goddard, Southern Cross University, Faculty of Health

C. Swann, Southern Cross University, Faculty of Health


 

The (over)use of SMART goals for physical activity promotion: A narrative review and critique

The SMART acronym (e.g., Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Timebound) is a highly prominent strategy for setting physical activity goals. While it is intuitive, and its practical value has been recognised, the scientific underpinnings of the SMART acronym are less clear. Therefore, we aimed to narratively review and critically examine the scientific underpinnings of the SMART acronym and its application in physical activity promotion. Specifically, our review suggests that the SMART acronym: is not based on scientific theory; is not consistent with empirical evidence; does not consider what type of goal is set; is not applied consistently; is lacking detailed guidance; has redundancy in its criteria; is not being used as originally intended; and has a risk of potentially harmful effects. These issues are likely leading to sub-optimal outcomes, confusion, and inconsistency. Recommendations are provided to guide the field towards better practice and, ultimately, more effective goal setting interventions to help individuals become physically active.



The Flow-Clutch Scale: Development and preliminary validation in sport and exercise

Objectives

The Integrated Model of Flow and Clutch States describes two overlapping psychological states that underlie exceptional performance and rewarding exercise experiences. However, research based on this model is currently hampered because no validated measure has yet been developed. Therefore, the aim of this multi-study paper was to develop and provide preliminary validation of the Flow-Clutch Scale in sport and exercise.

Design

Using two independent adult samples (n = 280; n = 264), three studies were conducted to develop and establish preliminary validity of the Flow-Clutch Scale.

Method

In Study 1, we developed an initial version of the scale and established content validity using an expert panel. In Study 2, we employed exploratory factor analysis to: identify the most appropriate factor structure; examine the scale’s internal consistency; test whether the scale differentiated between individuals who experience flow, clutch, or neither state; and examine relationships with the Flow State Scale-2. In Study 3, we aimed to replicate findings of Study 2 with an independent sample, and employed confirmatory factor analysis to confirm the factor structure, internal consistency, and relationships with the Flow State Scale-2.

Results

The results provide preliminary validation of the four-factor, 22-item Flow-Clutch Scale.

Conclusions

These studies indicate the Flow-Clutch Scale represents a useful scale for researchers interested in examining flow and/or clutch states in sport and exercise. Recommendations are provided for further research to continue testing, and accumulating evidence for, the validity and reliability of the Flow-Clutch Scale.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Christian Swann, Southern Cross University, Faculty of Health

Janelle Driscoll, Southern Cross University, Faculty of Health

Scott G. Goddard, Southern Cross University, Faculty of Health

Royce Willis, Southern Cross University, Faculty of Health

Matthew J. Schweickle, University of Wollongong, School of Psychology

Ingrid Araujo Fernandes Ribeiro, Southern Cross University, Faculty of Health

Matthew Gatt, Southern Cross University, Faculty of Health

Patricia C. Jackman, University of Lincoln, School of Sport and Exercise Science

Stewart A. Vella, University of Wollongong, School of Psychology


Self-disgust as a potential mechanism underlying the association between body image disturbance and suicidal thoughts and behaviours

This study examined whether self-disgust added incremental variance to and mediated the multivariate association between measures of body image disturbance and suicidal thoughts and behaviours. We hypothesized that self-disgust would be associated with suicidal ideation above the effects of body image disturbance, and that self-disgust would mediate the relationship between body image disturbance and suicidal ideation. A total of N=728 participants completed The Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire, The Self-Disgust Scale, and the Suicidal Behaviours Questionnaire-Revised. Suicidality was significantly related to increased levels of self-disgust and body image disturbance, whereas self-disgust was associated with greater body image disturbance. Linear regression analysis showed that self-disgust was associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviours, over and above the effects of body image disturbance. Multiple mediation modelling further showed that self-disgust mediated the relationship between body image disturbance and suicidal thoughts and behaviours. Our findings highlight the role of self-disgust in the context of body image disturbance and support the notion that body image disturbance is associated with aversive self-conscious emotions. Interventions aiming to reduce the risk of suicidality in people with body image disturbance may address self-disgust and negative self-conscious emotions.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science

Umair Akram, Sheffield Hallam University, Department of Psychology, Sociology and Politics

Sarah Allen, University of Teesside, School of Social Sciences, Humanities and Law

Jodie C. Stevenson, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology

Lambros Lazarus, University of Derby, Department of Psychology

Antonia Ypsilanti, Sheffield Hallam University, Department of Psychology, Sociology and Politics

Millicent Ackroyd, University of Derby, Department of Psychology

Jessica Chester, University of Derby, Department of Psychology

Jessica Longden, Sheffield Hallam University, Department of Psychology, Sociology and Politics

Chloe Peters, Sheffield Hallam University, Department of Psychology, Sociology and Politics

Kamilla R. Irvine, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology


 

Lecture start time and sleep characteristics: Analysis of daily diaries of undergraduate students from the LoST-Sleep project

Emerging evidence shows that later high school start times are associated with increased sleep duration; however, little is known if this extends to the university setting. This study investigated associations of first lecture start times with sleep characteristics among university students.

Seventy-five percent of first lectures occurred before noon. Students reported short sleep (M = 7.0 hours, SD = 1.9) and fewer reported highest levels of sleep quality (42.8%) and restfulness (24.8%) when first lectures started at 09:00 or 09:30 compared to 10:00 or later. Every hour delay of first lecture start time was associated with 15.1 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.5; 20.7) minutes increase in sleep duration and higher odds of reporting the highest levels of sleep quality and restfulness. Focusing on attended lectures starting before noon, hourly delay of first lecture start time was associated with 37.4 (95% CI: 22.0; 52.8) minutes increased sleep duration. Bedtime, sleep time, and sleep onset latency were not significantly associated with first lecture start times.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Lucy Swinnerton MSc, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology

Andreea A. Moldovan MSc, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology

Carly M. Mann MSc, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology

Simon J. Durrant DPhil, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology

Michael O. Mireku phD, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology


 

Predictors of suicide attempts in male UK gamblers seeking residential treatment

Disordered gambling can have serious negative consequences for the individual and those around them. Previous research has indicated that disordered gamblers are at an increased risk of suicidal thoughts, ideation and attempts. The current study sought to utilise data from a clinical sample to identify factors that are associated with prior suicide attempts.

Methods

The sample included 621 patients entering a gambling-specific residential facility in the UK. A series of Chi-Square analyses and binary logistic regressions were run to identify clinical and sociodemographic variables associated with suicide attempts.

Results

Of the 20 variables analysed using Chi-square statistics, five were significantly associated with the outcome variable (lifetime attempted suicide): loss of family relationships, loss of home, prior depression, prior suicidal thoughts, and medication use. Regression analysis showed that individuals were more likely to have reported suicide attempts if they had experienced loss of family relationships (1.65 times), loss of a home (1.87 times), prior depression (3.2 times), prior suicidal thoughts (6.14 times), or were taking medication (1.95 times) compared to those not reporting such individual events.

Conclusions

Disordered gamblers are vulnerable to suicide; a number of factors have been identified in the current study that predict an increased likelihood of attempted suicide. The factors mainly revolve around loss: not financial loss, but rather disintegration of an individual’s support network and deterioration in the individual’s mental health. Findings indicate that isolation and negative affect associated with gambling are most influential in attempted suicide and should therefore be more strongly considered when creating and providing the legislative, educational and treatment environments for those experiencing gambling related harm.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Steve Sharman, University of East London, School of Psychology and Kings College London, National Addictions Centre

Raegan Murphy, University College Cork, School of Applied Psychology

John Turner, University of East London, School of Psychology

Amanda Roberts, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology


 

Testing Mate Choice Hypotheses in a Transitional Small Scale Population

Tests of theories of mate choice often rely on data gathered in White, industrialised samples and this is especially the case for studies of facial attraction. Our understanding of preferences for sexual dimorphism is currently in flux and a number of hypotheses require testing in more diverse participant samples. The current study uses opportunistically gathered facial dimorphism preference data from 271 participants in rural Nicaragua, and 40 from the national capital Managua. We assess pre-registered hypotheses drawn from sexual selection theory, and from more recent approaches which consider the impacts of economic development and cultural ‘modernisation’ on mate preferences.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Lucy G. Boothroyd, Durham University, Department of Psychology

Jean-Luc Jucker, Durham University, Department of Psychology

Tracey Thornborrow, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology

Martin Tovee, Northumbria University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences

Carlota Batres, Franklin and Marshall College, Department of Psychology

Ian Penton-Voak, University of Bristol, School of Psychology Science


 

International Student Research Seminar Series is a Success

The Lincoln Sport and Exercise Psychology Research Club’s first seminar series in partnership with the Motivation of Health Behaviours (MoHB) Lab at Central Queensland University (CQU), Australia recently concluded after six excellent seminars focused on student research projects.

During 2021, six undergraduate or postgraduate students in the School of Sport and Exercise Science and six Honours students from the MoHB Lab delivered talks on their research projects. Recent BSc Health and Exercise Science graduate, Dona Hall, who joined the Lincoln Sport and Exercise Psychology Research Club as a first year and recently commenced a PhD at the University of Lincoln, delivered a presentation about her research on visually impaired running. Reflecting on her experience, Dona said, “Attending the MoHB Lab broadened my interests and made me feel connected to the international research community. It was helpful being able to cut my teeth presenting my work to such a friendly and supportive group”. University of Lincoln MSc Sport Science student and BSc Sport and Exercise Science graduate Esther Carter, who recently started a PhD at the University of Hull, talked about her research on the effects of green exercise and remarked that, “It was a great opportunity and privilege to share my research findings and be able to build my confidence for presenting in front of a friendly network. I enjoyed discussing the outcomes and potential future directions with staff and students with a diverse range of academic interests both in the UK and Australia.”

Similarly, students from the MoHB Lab spoke about the benefits of taking part in the series. Ashlee Forshaw, a Bachelor of Psychological Science (Honours), commented, “This experience has been fabulous. It’s great to see other young researchers from different countries get together and share their research. It has also helped me gain confidence in presenting and create connections with other aspiring academics”. Kristie-Lee Alfrey (PhD Candidate), also spoke of how inspirational the seminar series has been: “Sharing insights and learning about each other’s research has been really inspiring. I particularly like hearing about the different perspectives and methods we all use, and I often find myself wondering how I could integrate all these exciting components into my own research.”. MoHB Lab Director, Associate Professor Amanda Rebar, also spoke about the benefits for students at CQU: “It provides a safe, encouraging space for students to practice presenting and answering questions about their work. It’s also really invaluable for me to help learn about new methodologies and expand my thinking about what’s next for our research.”

Reflecting on the seminars over the last year, Dr Trish Jackman, who leads Lincoln Sport and Exercise Psychology Research, said: “Our seminar series with the MoHB Lab has given our students an opportunity to not only showcase their own research, but also to develop their professional network, gain feedback on their research, and build confidence in their presentation skills. We are already looking forward to organising this series again in 2022 and to hearing about many excellent student-led research projects”.

If you would like to join the seminar series in 2022, please email Trish (pjackman@lincoln.ac.uk). You can also follow the latest updates via @LincsSpExPsych on Twitter.

LSEP Presenters: Rachel Langbein, Ollie Williamson, Rebecca Hawkins, Dona Hall, Esther Carter, Georgia Clay

MoHB Presenters: Katie Newman, Lachie Irvine, Genevieve Cushan-Kain, Ashlee Forshaw, Matthew Hill, Kristie-Lee Alfrey

 

EXPRESS: Data driven group comparisons of eye fixations to dynamic stimuli

Recent advances in software and hardware have allowed eye tracking to move away from static images to more ecologically relevant video streams. The analysis of eye tracking data for such dynamic stimuli, however, is not without challenges. The frame by frame coding of regions of interest (ROIs) is labour intensive, and computer vision techniques to automatically code such ROIs are not yet mainstream, restricting the use of such stimuli. Combined with the more general problem of defining relevant ROIs for video frames, methods are needed that facilitate data analysis. Here we present a first evaluation of an easy-to-implement data-driven method with the potential to address these issues. To test the new method, we examined the differences in eye movements of self-reported politically left- or right-wing leaning participants to video clips of left- and right-wing politicians. The results show that our method can accurately predict group membership on the basis of eye movement patterns, isolate video clips which best distinguish people on the political left-right spectrum and reveal the section of each video clip with the largest group differences. Our methodology thereby aids the understanding of group differences in gaze behaviour, and the identification of critical stimuli for follow-up studies or for use in saccade diagnosis.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research
Tochukwu Onwuegbusi, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology
Frouke Hermens, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology
Todd Hogue, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology