Behavioural activation treatment for depression in individuals with neurological conditions: a systematic review

People with neurological conditions experience higher rates of depression than those in other patient groups without neurological conditions. Decreased social activities contribute to the continuation and exacerbation of depression through a loss of contact with contingencies that were previously reinforcing and mood enhancing. Conversely, engagement in social and leisure activities for people with multiple sclerosis promotes positive mood and well-being. With depression and reduced or declining physical abilities (common in many neurological conditions), individuals find it difficult to identify with and engage in activities that have pleasurable or reinforcing consequences.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Lloyd Oates, Lincolnshire Partnership NHS Foundation Trust

Nima Moghaddam, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology

Nikos Evangelou, University of Nottingham, Division of Neurosciences

Roshan das Nair, University of Nottingham, Institute of Mental Health


Extending the Role of Analogies in the Teaching of Physics

Dr Nikolaos Fotou, University of Lincoln, College of Social Science, School of Education

Research in physics teaching has supported the use of analogies as an effective instructional tool that can be used to facilitate students’ understanding of physics concepts. The effectiveness of analogies lies in that they allow students to form cognitive links between what they already know and what they are learning, harmoniously integrating, in this way, the new physics concepts into their existing knowledge. In this paper, it is suggested that analogies could be extended to provide physics teachers with a diagnostic form of assessment that can reveal both the misconceptions their students may hold, the prior knowledge upon which such misconceptions are based, as well as knowledge sources that can be productively used in the teaching process. This suggestion arises from the findings of a cross-age study in which students, from five different age groups, were asked to make predictions about a range of situations they had not previously encountered (novel situations) and explain the reasons that led them to make those predictions.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Nikolaos Fotou, University of Lincoln, School of Education

Ian Abrahams, University of Lincoln, School of Education


 

To be or not to be phenomenology: that is the question

Prof Jacquelyn Allen-Collinson, University of Lincoln, College of Social Science, School of Sport and Exercise Science

 

Recent years have seen a burgeoning in phenomenological research on sport, physical cultures and exercise. As editors and reviewers, however, we frequently and consistently see social science articles that claim to be ‘phenomenological’ or to use phenomenology, but the reasons for such claims are not always evident. Indeed, on closer reading, many such claims can often turn out to be highly problematic. At this point, we should clarify that our ‘terrain de sport’ constitutes what has been termed ‘empirical phenomenology’ (Martínková & Parry, 2011) and more specifically from our own ‘home’ discipline, a phenomenologically inspired form of sociology. This latter tradition was developed in North America by Alfred Schütz (1972). By this, we do not mean philosophical phenomenology in all its rich and varied strands, the modern form of which was inspired by Edmund Husserl’s (1913/2002) descriptive and/or transcendental phenomenology. The term itself is derived from the Greek phainomenon, from the root phôs, meaning ‘light’, thus referring to something that is placed in the light, made apparent or shown. Phenomenology is therefore the study of phenomena, things as they present themselves to, and are perceived in consciousness. Importantly, it is not just another form of qualitative research; a point which we discuss later.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research 

Jacquelyn Allen-Collinson, University of Lincoln, School of Sport and Exercise Science

Adam Evans, University of Copenhagen, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sport


The Ethics of Technology choice: Photovoice methodology with men living in low-income contexts

Dr Anna Tarrant, University of Lincoln, College of Social Science, School of Social and Political Science

This article describes a two-phased reflexive ethical process initiated when choosing digital cameras for the photovoice method in research with men living in low income contexts. While this participatory method aims to flatten power asymmetries in researcher-researched relationships, debate is needed about how pragmatic technology choices may inadvertently underscore or even reinforce participants’ situated experiences of disempowerment and constraint. Critically engaging with an ethics of care approach to decision-making, we unpick what superficially appears to be a straightforward problem of method, and demonstrate how pragmatic decisions may confound researchers’ efforts towards democratisation in research. We reflect on how such efforts may inadvertently obscure contextual processes shaping the potential for participants to engage in research. Our reflections demonstrate the need to take seriously all decision-making throughout the research process as integral to a wider politics of method and ethics.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Anna Tarrant, University of Lincoln, Social and Political Sciences

Kahyrn Hughes, University of Leeds


 

Ethical considerations in prehospital ambulance based research: qualitative interview study of expert informants

 Prehospital ambulance based research has unique ethical considerations due to urgency, time limitations and the locations involved. We sought to explore these issues through interviews with experts in this research field.

We undertook semi-structured interviews with expert informants, primarily based in the UK, seeking their views and experiences of ethics in ambulance based clinical research. Participants were questioned regarding their experiences of ambulance based research, their opinions on current regulations and guidelines, and views about their general ethical considerations. Participants were chosen because they were actively involved in, or in their expert capacity (e.g. law) expressed an interest in, ambulance based research.

Fourteen participants were interviewed including principal investigators, researchers, ethicists and medical lawyers. Five major themes were identified: Capacity, Consent, Clinical Considerations, Consultation and Regulation. Questions regarding consent and capacity were foremost in the discussions as all participants highlighted these as areas for concern. The challenges and use of multiple consent models reflected the complexity of research in this environment. The clinical theme referred to the role of paramedics in research and how research involving ambulance services is increasingly informing improvements to patient care and outcomes and reducing the burden on hospital services. Most felt that, although current regulations were fit for purpose, more specific guidance on implementing these in the ambulance setting would be beneficial. This related closely to the theme of consultation, which examined the key role of ethics committees and other regulatory bodies, as well as public engagement.

By interviewing experts in research or ethics in this setting we were able to identify key concerns and highlight areas for future development such as improved guidance.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Stephanie Armstrong, University of Lincoln, School of Social and Political Sciences

Adele Langlois, University of Lincoln, Social and Political Sciences

Niroshan Siriwardena, University of Lincoln, School of Health and Social Care

Tom Quinn, Kingston University & St George’s, University of London


 

The End to Testamentary Freedom

Dr Richard Hedlund, University of Lincoln, College of Social Science, Lincoln Law School

This article critically re-examines the parliamentary proceedings between 1928 and 1938 that led to the Inheritance (Family Provision) Act 1938, in particular looking at the reasons why Parliament sought to limit testamentary freedom.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Richard Hedlund, University of Lincoln, Lincoln Law School


 

A balancing act: Agency and constraints in university students’ understanding of and responses to sexual violence in the night-time economy

This paper extends our understanding of how university students make sense of, and respond to, sexual violence in the night-time economy (NTE). Based on semi-structured interviews with 26 students in a city in England, we examine students’ constructions of their experiences of sexual violence within the NTE, exploring their negotiations with, and resistance to, this violence. Building upon theories of postfeminism, we interrogate the possibilities for resistance within the gendered spaces of the NTE and propose a disaggregated conceptualisation of agency to understand responses to sexual violence, thereby offering useful insights for challenging sexual violence in the NTE and in universities.


 

University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Sundari Anitha, University of Lincoln, School of Social and Political Sciences

Ana Jordan, University of Lincoln, School of Social and Political Sciences

Jill Jameson, University of Lincoln, Social and Political Sciences

Zowie Davy, De Montfort University


 

 

Removing Hand Form Information Specifically Impairs Emotion Recognition for Fearful and Angry Body Stimuli

Dr Tessa Flack, University of Lincoln, College of Social Science, School of Psychology

Emotion perception research has largely been dominated by work on facial expressions, but emotion is also strongly conveyed from the body. Research exploring emotion recognition from the body tends to refer to “the body” as a whole entity. However, the body is made up of different components (hands, arms, trunk, etc.), all of which could be differentially contributing to emotion recognition. We know that the hands can help to convey actions and, in particular, are important for social communication through gestures, but we currently do not know to what extent the hands influence emotion recognition from the body. Here, 93 adults viewed static emotional body stimuli with either the hands, arms, or both components removed and completed a forced-choice emotion recognition task. Removing the hands significantly reduced recognition accuracy for fear and anger but made no significant difference to the recognition of happiness and sadness. Removing the arms had no effect on emotion recognition accuracy compared with the full-body stimuli. These results suggest the hands may play a key role in the recognition of emotions from the body.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Tessa Flack, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology

Paddy Ross, Durham University, Department of Psychology