Covid-19 and Probation’s Health Related Practice

The prevalence of many health conditions is higher amongst people under probation supervision than in the general population. Probation staff work in partnership with healthcare organisations to identify health needs and improve the health of people under supervision. During the pandemic, probation adopted an Exceptional Delivery Model, replacing most face-to-face supervision with remote supervision.

Using qualitative staff surveys with a convenience sample of frontline staff (n=27) and interviews with people under supervision (n=11), we investigated perceptions of the impact of the response to covid-19 on health-related probation practice, the lived experience of seeking health support whilst under supervision, and partnership working and pathways into healthcare.

To date, we have created themes around the importance of face-to-face communication; partnerships and service access; impact on health; remote appointments; innovations; impact on staff; risk management; digital capability and access; and flexibility, discretion, trust and choice. This research will have real world benefit as findings will inform recovery planning in probation, including for the delivery of community sentence treatment requirements, and the NHS England RECONNECT project to improve continuity of care for prisoners. We will make recommendations around avoiding negative consequences of change, and spreading beneficial innovations identified in the research in future practice.

Dr Coral Sirdifield, School of Health and Social Care, University of Lincoln
Dr Helen Nichols, School of Social and Political Science, University of Lincoln
Dr Philip Mullen, Revolving Doors Agency
Revolving Doors Agency Peer Researchers

Do National and International Ethics Documents Accord With the Consent Substitute Model for Emergency Research?

In 2010 Largent, Wendler, and Emanuel proposed the “consent substitute model” for emergency research with incapacitated participants. The model provides a means to enroll participants in emergency research without consent, if five conditions are met: 1) the research addresses the patients’ urgent medical needs, 2) the risk–benefit ratio is favorable, 3) there are no known conflicts with patients’ values or interests, 4) cumulative net risk is minimal, and 5) consent is given as soon as possible. We review national and international ethics laws, regulations, and guidelines to determine 1) whether they accord with the consent substitute model’s five conditions and 2) the level of congruence across these documents. We find that only one document meets all five conditions and that there is significant disparity among the documents, particularly between national and international ones. These differences may have stymied international collaboration in emergency research. We recommend that the two international documents used most, the International Council for Harmonization’s Guideline for Good Clinical Practice and the World Medical Association’s Declaration of Helsinki, are revised to include more specific provisions on emergency medical research.

University of Lincoln, College of Social Science

Adele Langlois, University of Lincoln, School of Social and Political Sciences

Stephanie Armstrong, University of Lincoln, School of Social and Political Sciences

Niro Siriwardena, University of Lincoln, School of Social and Political Sciences

Inter-Disciplinary Student Work Placements within a Care Home Setting: Improving Student Employability and Developing Social Connections – A Qualitative Evaluation

This article reports on the development, implementation and evaluation of a project to develop students’ employability skills by involving them in work experience within a care home. The aims of this project were (1) to describe how employability skills developed during the work experience (including knowledge and values relevant to the health and social care sector) and (2) to promote social engagement for residents living within the care home. In this descriptive qualitative study, 12 students from various disciplines across social science courses volunteered to participate following an advert to all students. Alongside three key care home staff, these students participated in two information sessions prior to involving residents in individual and group activities commencing in the following week. Qualitative, semi-structured, written evaluations were collected from the students and care home staff at three time points: immediately after the information sessions, immediately following volunteering sessions and at the end of the project, five months after the project commenced. Evaluations were analysed thematically using the principles of Braun and Clarke (2006) with the identified themes demonstrating students had developed skills, knowledge and understanding in the context of caring for older adults through their planning and implementation of activities, engaging and communicating with the residents, and working alongside care home staff. They reported benefiting from working as a team and commented on their perceived benefits to the residents. Students were able to build transferable skills which they felt would benefit them in future employment. Their participation resulted in a greater understanding of caring for older adults which students stated they can apply both in their working and social lives. The project provided an opportunity for peer education and experience of inter-disciplinary teamwork. The perceived benefits to residents included a positive impact on social engagement, communication and well-being.

University of Lincoln, College of Social Science

Rachael Mason, University of Lincoln, School of Health and Social Care

Rachael Hunt, University of Lincoln, School of Health and Social Care

Ros Kane, University of Lincoln, School of Health and Social Care

Has a child you care for been in an ambulance with a painful condition? – Call for Participants

Has a child you care for been in an ambulance with a painful condition?  If so we would really like to hear from you.  We are designing a research project that aims to improve pain management in children and young people treated by the ambulance service.  We are looking for parents/carers of children, or children and young people along with their parents/carers, who have been attended by an ambulance in the UK for a painful condition.

Research created with patients and the public is more likely to benefit patients, therefore you would part of a Patient and Public Involvement and Engagement (PPIE) group.  To take part, you do not need any research experience, and it would involve a short discussion, by telephone or videoconference, lasting no more than 60 minutes.  You would receive compensation for your time in the form of a £20 voucher per participant.  If you would like to find out more, please contact Dr Gregory Whitley at:

Factors supporting career pathway development amongst advanced practice nurses in Thailand: A cross-sectional survey


Thailand has recently reformed its health care system and this change has contributed to the rapidly increasing need for skilled and experienced specialist nurses and in 2003 a new Advanced Practice Nursing role was formally introduced. While Advanced Practice Nursing is now accepted as a clinical career option, there is little understanding of the factors conducive to successful career development. This study offers the first examination of factors associated with successful career progression for Advanced Practice Nurses in Thailand.


1. To provide a description of the Advanced Practice Nurse population in Thailand, as represented by a purposive stratified national sample. 2. To examine the factors influencing successful career pathway development of Advanced Practice Nurses in Thailand. 3. To examine the factors which influence the extent to which Advanced Practice Nurses in Thailand engage in evidence-based practice and research.

University of Lincoln, College of Social Science

Aranya Rakhab, Surathani Rajabhat University, Faculty of Nursing and University of Lincoln, School of Health and Social Care

Christine Jackson, University of Lincoln, School of Health and Social Care

Kittikorn Nilmanat, Prince of Songkla University, Faculty of Nursing

Tony Butterworth, University of Lincoln, School of Health and Social Care

Roslyn Kane, University of Lincoln, School of Health and Social Care

End of life care for long-term neurological conditions: A meta-ethnographic review of the experiences of informal carers

Family and friends are key providers of care for people living with a long-term neurological condition. Neurological conditions are a significant global contributor to disability and premature death. However, previous research suggests carers often struggle to access appropriate support at end of life.

This review sought to synthesise qualitative studies discussing end-of-life and palliative issues for informal carers supporting people living with neurological conditions.

This was a meta-ethnographic synthesis of 38 qualitative studies discussing end-of-life and palliative issues for informal carers supporting people living with long-term neurological conditions.

Qualitative articles published after January 2010 in English, addressing carers of people with long-term neurological conditions with regard to palliative care, end of life and/or bereavement. Papers were excluded if it was not possible to separately assess the views of carers. Quality appraisal was not undertaken, but consideration was given to research context.

Across the papers, five key themes were identified: the future (un)certainties in the progression of life-limiting neurological conditions; an information paradox of not receiving the right information at the right time; access to support; carers’ roles in decision making around end of life; and maintaining continuity while facing change and disruption in day-to-day living.

Given the broad agreement on the challenges faced by carers of people living with long-term neurological conditions, future research should consider opportunities to improve information and support for this group, and the development and evaluation of practical models of service delivery.

University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Michael Toze, University of Lincoln, Lincoln Medical School

Mo Ray, University of Lincoln, School of Health and Social Care

Thomas George, University of Lincoln, School of Health and Social Care

Kelly Sisson, University of Lincoln, School of Health and Social Care

David Nelson, University of Lincoln, School of Health and Social Care

Patients’ experiences and perceptions of Guillain-Barré syndrome: A systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative research

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an immune-mediated polyradiculoneuropathy, with an incidence of 1-2/100,000 per year. Its severity is variable, ranging from very mild cases with brief weakness to severe paralysis, leading to inability to breathe independently, or even death. Currently there is limited evidence exploring the experiences of GBS patients. The aim of this study was to review patients’ experiences and perceptions of GBS and its variants at diagnosis, discharge and during recovery, by conducting a systematic review and thematic meta-synthesis of qualitative studies of patients’ experiences of GBS (and its variants).

We searched twelve electronic databases, supplemented with internet searches and forward and backward citation tracking from the included studies and review articles. Data were synthesised thematically following the Thomas and Harden approach. The CASP Qualitative Checklist was used to assess the quality of the included studies of this review.

Our search strategy identified a total of 5,282 citations and after removing duplicates and excluding citations based on title and abstract, and full-text screening, five studies were included in the review and meta-synthesis; all included studies were considered of acceptable quality. Through constant discussions and an iterative approach, we developed six analytical themes following a patient’s journey from suspecting that they had a health problem, through to being hospitalised, experiencing ongoing difficulties, slowly recovering from GBS, adjusting to their new circumstances, and re-evaluating their lives.
Despite the variety of experiences, it was evident from all included studies that being diagnosed with and surviving GBS was a life-changing experience for all participants.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Despina Laparidou, University of Lincoln, Community and Health Research Unit
Ffion Curtis, University of Lincoln, Lincoln International Institute for Rural Health
Joseph Akanuwe, University of Lincoln, Community and Health Research Unit
Jennifer Jackson, University of Lincoln, Lincoln International Business School
Timothy Hodgson, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology
Niro Siriwardena, University of Lincoln, Community and Health Research Unit


Collaboration of nursing students and academics from six European countries. 

This week saw the launch of a series of workshops focusing on ethical issues in nursing, which build on an existing partnership between participating organisations.

A previous ERASMUS funded project (a student conference) was held in Lincoln in 2019 and focused on the concept of age, exploring topical issues when working with younger people. This conference was very well received, and all partners were keen to continue to build on this now very well-established partnership.

On-line workshops will take place monthly until summer 2021 and (pandemic allowing) may culminate in a final meeting, hosted by the University of Oulu in Finland.

More information can be found on our website which will be further developed as the workshops progress:

British Sleep Society: the COVID-19 pandemic response

The current pandemic caused by a novel coronavirus, named COVID-19, holds the entire world to ransom. A proportion of the infected patients becomes critically ill, with millions being infected and hundreds of thousands who have died so far. In some countries, national lockdown restrictions are being slowly lifted, but the World Health Organization (WHO) still registers increasing numbers of confirmed COVID-19 infections across its membership states.

Against this background, the BSS brought together doctors from the respiratory and critical care response teams in Wuhan, China and London, UK in a webinar to exchange their knowledge and expertise and discuss current best practice in the management of patients with COVID-19. Following their presentations, sleep experts from the Executive Committee of the BSS discussed the impact of the pandemic and lockdown on sleep and shared practical advice regarding sleep health.

University of Lincoln, College of Social Science research

Joerg Steier, British Sleep Society, Lichfield, UK; Sleep Disorders Centre, Guy’s & St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; and King’s College London, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, London, UK

Simon Durrant, British Sleep Society, Lichfield, UK; University of Lincoln, Lincoln Sleep Research Centre and School of Psychology, Lincoln, UK

Alanna Hare, British Sleep Society, Lichfield, UK; Royal Brompton & Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK

on behalf of the BSS Executive Committee