Supporting Polish women victims of domestic abuse in the UK

This report presents the findings of the first research project to investigate Polish women’s
experiences of domestic violence and abuse, and service responses to Polish women in the UK.
It seeks to understand why domestic abuse services receive few referrals from Polish women
despite the Polish community constituting the second largest foreign-born group in the UK with
over 700,000 residents. Migration is well-known to exacerbate the risk of domestic abuse and
increase barriers to accessing support


Iwona Zielinska, EDAN Lincs and The Maria Grzegorzewska University

Sundari Anitha, University of Lincoln, School of Social and Political Sciences

Michael Rasell, University of Innsbruck

Ros Kane, University of Lincoln, School of Health and Social Care

New Study finds Dogs may reduce Stress Levels in Children

Originally posted on Lincoln.ac.uk

New research from the University of Lincoln has found that dog-assisted interventions can lead to significantly lower stress levels in children both with and without special needs.

The findings were published this week in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Kerstin Meints, Professor in Developmental Psychology at the University of Lincoln, and colleagues.

The study compared cortisol levels in primary school children who participated in dog-assisted intervention sessions, relaxation sessions, or no intervention. 

Prolonged exposure to stressors can cause adverse effects on learning, behaviour, health and wellbeing in children over their lifespan. Several approaches to alleviating stress have been explored in schools including yoga, mindfulness, meditation, physical activity, teaching style interventions and animal-assisted interventions.

Researchers measured levels of the stress hormone cortisol in the saliva of 105 8- to 9-year-old children in four mainstream schools as well as 44 similarly aged children from seven special education needs schools. The children were randomly stratified into three groups: a dog group, relaxation group or control group.

In the dog group, participants interacted for 20 minutes with a trained dog and handler; the meditation group involved a 20-minute relaxation session. Sessions were carried out twice a week for four weeks.  The control group went to school as normal.

Dog interventions lead to significantly lower cortisol levels in children in both mainstream and special needs schools. In mainstream schools, children in the control and relaxation groups had increases in mean salivary cortisol over the course of the school term. In contrast, children who participated in either group or individual sessions with dogs had no statistically significant increase in stress levels. In addition, their cortisol levels were, on average, lower immediately after a single dog session.

For children with special educational needs, similar patterns were seen, with decreases in cortisol after dog group interventions. The authors conclude that dog interventions can successfully attenuate stress levels in school children but point out that additional research into the ideal amounts of time and contact with dogs for optimal effect is needed.

The pairs training effect in unfamiliar face matching

A wealth of studies have shown that humans are remarkably poor at determining whether two face images show the same person or not (face matching). Given the prevalence of photo-ID, and the fact that people employed to check photo-ID are typically unfamiliar with the person pictured, there is a need to improve unfamiliar face matching accuracy. One method of improvement is to have participants complete the task in a pair, which results in subsequent improvements in the low performer (“the pairs training effect”). Here, we sought to replicate the original finding, to test the longevity of the pairs training effect, and to shed light on the potential underlying mechanisms. In two experiments, we replicated the pairs training effect and showed it is maintained after a delay (Experiment 1). We found no differences between high and low performers in confidence (Experiment 1) or response times (Experiment 2), and the content of the pairs’ discussions (Experiment 2) did not explain the results. The pairs training effect in unfamiliar face matching is robust, but the mechanisms underlying the effects remain as yet unexplained.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Kay Ritchie, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology

Tessa Flack, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology

Elizabeth Fuller, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology

Charlotte Cartledge, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology

Robin Kramer, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology


Ethnicity and risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection among the healthcare workforce: Results of a retrospective cohort study in rural United Kingdom

The reason why Black and South Asian healthcare workers are at a higher risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection remain unclear. We aimed to quantify the risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection among healthcare staff who belong to the ethnic minority and elucidate pathways of infection.

A one-year follow-up retrospective cohort study has been conducted among National Health Service employees who were working at 123 facilities in Lincolnshire, UK.

Overall, 13,366 professionals were included. SARS-CoV-2 incidence per person-year was 5.2% (95% CI: 3.6–7.6%) during the first COVID-19 wave (January–August 2020) and 17.2% (13.5–22.0%) during the second wave (September 2020–February 2021). Compared with White staff, Black and South Asian employees were at higher risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection during both the first wave (hazard ratio, HR 1.58 [0.91–2.75] and 1.69 [1.07–2.66], respectively) and the second wave (HR 2.09 [1.57–2.76] and 1.46 [1.24–1.71]). Higher risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection persisted even after controlling for age, sex, pay grade, residence environment, type of work, and time exposure at work. Higher adjusted risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection were also found among lower-paid health professionals.

Black and South Asian health workers continue to be at higher risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection than their White counterparts. Urgent interventions are required to reduce SARS-CoV-2 infection in these ethnic groups.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Maxime Inghels, University of Lincoln, Lincoln International Institute for Rural Health
Ros Kane, University of Lincoln, School of Health and Social Care
Priya Lall, University of Lincoln, Lincoln International Institute for Rural Health
David Nelson, University of Lincoln, Lincoln International Institute for Rural Health
Agnes Nanyonjo, University of Lincoln, Lincoln International Institute for Rural Health
Zahid Asghar, University of Lincoln, School of Health and Social Care
Derek Ward, Lincolnshire County Council
Tracy McCranor, Lincolnshire Partnership NHS Foundation Trust
Tony Kavanagh, Lincolnshire Partnership NHS Foundation Trust
Todd Hogue, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology
Jaspreet Phull, Lincolnshire Partnership NHS Foundation Trust
Frank Tanser, University of Lincoln, Lincoln International Institute for Rural Health


 

Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on public attitudes to cardiopulmonary resuscitation and publicly accessible defibrillator use in the UK

Members of the public have an essential role to play in the out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) chain of survival by acting to call Emergency Medical Services (EMS), start cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and use a Public Access Defibrillator (PAD) to help save lives.1.2.3.4.5. In recent years, there has been a rise in bystander CPR rates across many worldwide EMS systems (Denmark,6.7. United States,8 Japan,9 Canada,10 South Korea.11) In England, the percentage of people sustaining an OHCA that was either unwitnessed or witnessed by a bystander and who received bystander CPR has risen from 55.2% in 2014 to 69.8% in 2019.12.13. In Scotland, this increased from 39.4% in 2011–2012 to 64.0% in 2018–2019.14

In the UK, as in many other countries, there has been a parallel rise in the proportion of people reporting they have trained in resuscitation skills. In 2014, 47% of people reported formal CPR skills training and by 2019 it was 62.2%.15.16. National initiatives are associated with increases in the numbers of people trained, which in turn is associated with increased bystander CPR rates and improved survival outcomes.6.17.

The COVID-19 pandemic appears to have increased the incidence of OHCA cases.18.19.20.21. In some places bystander CPR rates also appear to be reduced.18.19. National and international organisations have developed revised guidelines for performing CPR as safely as possible on OHCA patients during the pandemic to reduce the risk of the rescuer catching COVID-19 during a resuscitation attempt (such as favouring compression-only CPR with a cloth over the patients mouth rather than CPR with rescue breaths).22.23. However, little is known about the public’s knowledge of this guidance, how their attitudes to performing different resuscitation actions may have changed and reasons for any reluctance to do so during the pandemic. Public health messaging on social distancing may have contributed to increased fear about helping OHCA patients.24

Research to understand whether concerns about the COVID-19 pandemic have adversely affected gains in bystander CPR rates, including any changes in public attitudes to performing CPR is needed. It will inform stakeholders’ strategies to support recovery in the public’s confidence and likelihood of helping people who sustain an OHCA.

We conducted 4 short surveys of adults during the first wave of the pandemic in the UK (April – July 2020) and a longer survey in November 2020 to assess the UK public’s knowledge of revised resuscitation guidance and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on their attitudes to CPR and defibrillator use.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Claire A. Hawkes, University of Warwick, Warwick Medical School

Inès Kander, University of Warwick, Warwick Medical School

Abraham Contreras, University of Warwick, Warwick Medical School

Chen Ji, University of Warwick, Warwick Medical School

Terry P. Brown, University of Warwick, Warwick Medical School

Scott Booth, University of Warwick, Warwick Medical School

A. Niroshan Siriwardena, University of Lincoln, School of Health and Social Care

Rachael T. Fothergill, London Ambulance Service NHS Trust

Julia Williams, South East Coast Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust

Nigel Rees, Swansea University, Institute of Life Science

Estelle Stephenson, British Heart Foundation

Gavin D. Perkins, University of Warwick, Warwick Medical School and University Hospitals Birmingham, Heartlands Hospital

Doing the right thing? value conflicts and community policing

Research on police legitimacy and public confidence underlines the importance of the police demonstrating moral alignment with the communities they serve. However, less attention is given to conflict between values, either within communities or between communities and the police. This study explores value conflicts in community or neighbourhood policing from a perspective of political realism, which suggests that such conflicts are inevitable and can only be resolved in temporary and contingent ways. It does so through a case study of neighbourhood policing, seen through local ward panel meetings, in one London borough. In total, 33 semi-structured interviews with 43 participants were undertaken, and seven hours of observations. This paper identifies four value-based conflicts that emerged through the meetings, and shows how neighbourhood police officers were able to provisionally resolve them, thus supporting confidence and legitimacy. However, it also shows how austerity has put this capacity at risk, both operationally, and through a receding of confidence as an organisational priority, with potential long-term consequences for public confidence in the police. With global protests such as Black Lives Matters, and anti-lockdown demonstrations, underlining the importance of public confidence and legitimacy to police organisations across the world, this paper adds to the evidence on the capacity of community policing to support this, offers a new perspective to understand the role of values in policing, and discusses the policy implications.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Carina O’Reilly, University of Lincoln, College of Social Science


 

Restoring public confidence through the delivery of improved community policing in Rackhamshire

Neighbourhood policing is central to supporting public confidence in England and Wales. However, the delivery of neighbourhood policing models is increasingly fragmented and under pressure from austerity measures and from changes to demand and priorities. This research aims to understand the current state of neighbourhood policing in the county of “Rackhamshire” and its ability to support public confidence.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research
Carina O’Reilly, University of Lincoln, School of Social and Political Sciences.
Winifred Agnew-Pauley, Anglia Ruskin University, Policing Institute for the Eastern Region (PIER)
Sam Lundrigan, Anglia Ruskin University, Policing Institute for the Eastern Region (PIER)