Probation and COVID-19: Lessons learned to improve health-related practice

Probation staff perform a health-related role involving identifying health-related drivers of offending behaviour; facilitating access to support for these, including continuity of care for people leaving prison; and advising the courts on appropriate sentencing. This study analyses data from probation staff surveys and interviews with people that were under probation supervision during the pandemic to investigate the impact of the response to the pandemic on a) this health-related role, b) the lived experience of accessing health support whilst engaging with probation, and c) partnership working and pathways into healthcare for people under probation supervision


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science

Coral Sirdifield, University of Lincoln, School of Health and Social Care

Helen Nichols, University of Lincoln, School of Health and Social Care

Phillip Mullen, Revolving Doors Agency


 

The effectiveness of primary care streaming in emergency departments on decision-making and patient flow and safety – A realist evaluation

Primary care streaming was implemented in UK Emergency Departments (EDs) to manage an increasing demand for urgent care. We aimed to explore its effectiveness in EDs with different primary care models and identify contexts and mechanisms that influenced outcomes: streaming patients to the most appropriate clinician or service, ED flow and patient safety.

We observed streaming and interviewed ED and primary care staff during case study visits to 10 EDs in England. We used realist methodology, synthesising a middle-range theory with our qualitative data to refine and create a set of theories that explain relationships between contexts, mechanisms and outcomes.

Mechanisms contributing to the effectiveness of primary care streaming were: quality of decision-making, patient flow, redeploying staff, managing patients across streams, the implementation of governance protocols, guidance, training, service evaluation and quality improvement efforts. Experienced nurses and good teamworking and strategic and operational management were key contextual factors.

We recommend service improvement strategies, operational management, monitoring, evaluation and training to ensure that ED nurses stream patients presenting at an ED seeking urgent care to the most appropriate clinicians for their needs in a safe and efficient manner.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Michelle Edwards, Cardiff University, Division of Population Medicine

Alison Cooper, Cardiff University, Division of Population Medicine

Thomas Hughes, John Radcliffe Hospital, Emergency Department

Freya Davies, Cardiff University, Division of Population Medicine

Delyth Price, Cardiff University, Division of Population Medicine

Pippa Anderson, Swansea University, College of Human and Health Sciences, Swansea Centre for Health Economics

Bridie Evans, Swansea University, Swansea University Medical School

Andrew Carson-Stevens, Cardiff University, Division of Population Medicine

Jeremy Dale, Warwick University, Academic Primary Care

Peter Hibbert, Macquarie University, Australian Institute of Health Innovation, Centre for Healthcare Resilience and Implementation Science

Barbara Harrington, Cardiff University, Division of Population Medicine

Julie Hepburn, Cardiff University, Division of Population Medicine

Niro Siriwardana, University of Lincoln, School of Health & Social Care, Community and Health Research Unit

Helen Snooks, Swansea University, Swansea University Medical School

Adrian Edwards, Cardiff University, Division of Population Medicine


 

Non-religious prisoners’ unequal access to pastoral care

Prisoners have long been recognised as a disenfranchised group. This paper positions non-religious prisoners as further excluded from pastoral care. While chaplaincies aim to serve prisoners of all faiths and none, this paper suggests a hierarchy of access in which the benefits of chaplaincy are more available to some prisoners than others. Shortcomings in secular care mean that non-religious offenders are often the only group unable to connect with like-minded people and it is argued that they are disadvantaged as a result. The paper also explores the challenges for pastoral carers seeking to support inmates equally. It considers the barriers on both sides of the care relationship, specifically the disincentives to chaplaincy engagement faced by prisoners of no faith and the obstacles encountered by the Non-Religious Pastoral Support Network in accessing service users and delivering care. Finally, recommendations are made to narrow the gaps between religious and non-religious prisoners.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Katie Hunt, University of Lincoln, Lincoln Law School


 

The effect of slow-wave sleep and rapid eye-movement sleep interventions on glycaemic control: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

Poor glycaemic control is found in diabetes, one of the most common, serious, non-communicable diseases worldwide. Trials suggest a relationship between glycaemic control and measures of sleep including duration and quality of sleep. Currently, the relationship between specific sleep stages (including slow-wave sleep (SWS), a sleep stage mainly found early in the night and linked to restorative functioning) and glycaemic control remains unclear. This systematic review aimed to synthesise the evidence of the effectiveness of specific sleep stage manipulation on measures of glycaemic control (insulin resistance, fasting and post-prandial glucose and insulin). Public databases (eg psychINFO, MEDLINE, Academic Search Complete, psychARTICLES, OpenDissertations, Scopus and Cochrane library) were searched for randomised controlled trials. Trials were included if they involved direct manipulation of SWS and/or rapid eye-movement sleep to explore the impact on measures of glycaemic control (insulin resistance, fasting and post-prandial glucose and insulin). Eight trials met the eligibility criteria, with four providing data for inclusion in one of the three meta-analyses. Insulin resistance was significantly higher in the SWS disruption when compared to the normal sleep condition, (p = 0.02). No significant differences were found for measures of fasting or post-prandial glucose or insulin. Risk of bias was considered low for performance bias, detection bias and incomplete outcome data, with unclear selection bias. This is an emerging area of research and this review provides preliminary findings and recommendations for future research around optimising sleep stage disruption (to further explore mechanisms) and sleep stage enhancement techniques (to explore potential interventions).


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science

Jennifer Johnson, University of Lincoln, Lincoln Sleep Research Centre and School of Health and Social Care

Simon Durrant, University of Lincoln, Lincoln Sleep Research Centre and School of Psychology

Graham Law, University of Lincoln, Lincoln Sleep Research Centre and School of Health and Social Care

Joao Santiago, University of Tübingen, Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioural Neurobiology; German Center for Diabetes Research and University of Tübingen, Institute for Diabetes Research and Metabolic Diseases of the Helmholtz Center Munich

Eleanor Scott, University of Leeds, School of Medicine, Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine

Ffion Curtis, University of Lincoln, Lincoln Sleep Research Centre and Leicester General Hospital, Biological Sciences and Psychology, Diabetes Research Centre, College of Medicine


 

The event-focused interview: what is it, why is it useful, and how is it used?

There has been longstanding interest in understanding how people think, feel, and behave in sport and exercise activities. Although naturalistic recordings, momentary assessments, and post-event questionnaires have been employed to capture information on people’s experiences, these methods can have some shortcomings for researchers interested in advancing knowledge of certain social-psychological phenomena, especially in natural settings. The purpose of this paper is to describe the event-focused interview method and outline its utility for researchers who are interested in capturing rich, in-depth information on episodic phenomena, such as particular moments, events, psychological states, and experiences. First, we describe the event-focused interview method and the background to its development. Second, we highlight the limitations of naturalistic recordings, existing momentary assessment methods, and post-event questionnaires for certain types of research, before explaining why event-focused interviews can add to the suite of methods researchers use to obtain information on episodic phenomena in specific sport and exercise activities. Third, we provide guidance on how the event-focused interview method can be implemented, using illustrative examples from several recent event-focused interview studies. Fourth, to guide researchers in future, we identify some methodological dilemmas and considerations for applying this method. We conclude by outlining several methodological avenues that could be employed in future event-focused interview studies. Overall, we propose that the event-focused interview method may be a promising addition to the collection of methods available to researchers interested in generating new theoretical and practical knowledge about episodic phenomena in sport and exercise.


Trish Jackman, University of Lincoln, School of Sport and Exercise Science

M. J Schweickle, University of Wollongong, School of Psychology

S.G. Goddard, Southern Cross University, Faculty of Health

C. Swann, Southern Cross University, Faculty of Health