Dogs can infer implicit information from human emotional expressions

The ability to infer emotional states and their wider consequences requires the establishment of relationships between the emotional display and subsequent actions. These abilities, together with the use of emotional information from others in social decision making, are cognitively demanding and require inferential skills that extend beyond the immediate perception of the current behaviour of another individual. They may include predictions of the significance of the emotional states being expressed. These abilities were previously believed to be exclusive to primates. In this study, we presented adult domestic dogs with a social interaction between two unfamiliar people, which could be positive, negative or neutral. After passively witnessing the actors engaging silently with each other and with the environment, dogs were given the opportunity to approach a food resource that varied in accessibility. We found that the available emotional information was more relevant than the motivation of the actors (i.e. giving something or receiving something) in predicting the dogs’ responses. Thus, dogs were able to access implicit information from the actors’ emotional states and appropriately use the affective information to make context-dependent decisions. The findings demonstrate that a non-human animal can actively acquire information from emotional expressions, infer some form of emotional state and use this functionally to make decisions.

University of Lincoln, College of Social Science

Natalia Albuquerque, University of São Paulo, Institute of Psychology and University of Lincoln, School of Life Sciences

Daniel S. Mills, University of Lincoln, School of Life Sciences

Kun Guo, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology

Briseida Resende, University of São Paulo, Institute of Psychology

Prehospital Research Methods and Practice

Bringing together a team of leading international experts in the field of research, this book provides an up-to-date and accessible overview of applied research methods in the prehospital environment.

Written to support the needs of the paramedicine, emergency medicine and wider healthcare communities in this rapidly advancing research setting, the authors introduce the key areas of research design and methods, evidence-based practice, ethics and quality improvement for both the novice and the more advanced researcher. Relevant examples of prehospital research are also included to fully explain and illustrate the key approaches.

High-quality, robust evidence is of the utmost importance to inform prehospital clinical practice and ensure better patient care. This book is essential reading for anyone interested in undertaking research within the prehospital or emergency care setting, including undergraduate and postgraduate students in paramedic science, medicine, nursing and allied health.

University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Gregory Whitley, University of Lincoln, School of Health and Social Care

Niro Siriwardena, University of Lincoln, School of Health and Social Care

Are music listening strategies associated with reduced food consumption following negative mood inductions; a series of three exploratory experimental studies

Emotions play an important role in overeating, yet there is little research looking at practical strategies to reduce overeating in response to a negative mood. In three different experimental studies, we tested if exposure to music can reduce food consumption in a negative mood. Female undergraduates (N = 120–121 in each study) completed a measure of emotional eating and reported baseline hunger. Mood ratings were taken at baseline, post-mood induction and post-eating. All participants were given a mood induction (sadness for study 1, stress for studies 2 and 3) and allocated to one of three music conditions (self-chosen in study 3) or a silent (control) condition. Music was selected from three pieces reported by each participant as being listened to regularly when experiencing the negative mood being examined (sadness or stress) in order to provide solace (comforting music), diversion (distracting positive music), or discharge (angry and/or sad music). Participants were provided with several snack foods to consume whilst completing a mock taste test and intake (in grams) was compared between conditions.

In study 1 participants in the music for discharge condition consumed less than those in the control condition. Moreover, participants with high levels of self-reported EE ate more crisps in the control than in the distraction condition. In study 2 participants in the solace condition consumed less than those in the control and discharge conditions. In study 3 most participants chose music for diversion; this did not, however, lead to lower consumption, despite a reduction in reported stress. Overall, the results of these studies indicate that listening to certain types of music might reduce emotion-related eating after controlling for hunger using a standardized pre-session snack.

University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Annemieke Van den Tol, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology

Helen Couthard, De Monfort University, Faculty of Health & life sciences

Victoria Lang, De Monfort University, Faculty of Health & life sciences

Deborah Wallis, Birmingham City University, Department of Psychology


lgbtq+ online inclusivity toolkit

Incidents of discrimination directed at individuals due to their sexual or gender identity are commonplace, with SNS (Online Social Networking Sites) providing further opportunities for abuse. Online abuse experienced by minorities is significant; in response to this, academics from the University of Lincoln and UCLan carried out a study working with sexual and gender minorities to identify and resolve online abuse.

The project had two key aims:

  • Firstly, to identify experiences of online discrimination directed at different sexual and gender minorities; and
  • Secondly, to work collaboratively with those communities to begin to develop an anti-discrimination toolkit.

The toolkit aims to raise awareness of online abuse and to provide practical strategies to prevent the online discrimination directed at sexual and gender minorities.

University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Dr Rachela Colosi, University of Lincoln, School of Social and Political Sciences

Dr Nick Cowen, University of Lincoln, School of Social and Political Sciences

Dr Megan Todd, University of Central Lancashire


Strain theory, resilience, and far-right extremism: the impact of gender, life experiences and the internet

There has been a notable increase in support for far-right ideologies across the West. The seriousness of this threat has been acknowledged by the UK government which has banned certain far-right groups using terrorism legislation. While criminological theories have been useful in explaining general criminality, they have been under-utilised in explaining extremism and terrorism. Agnew’s General Strain Theory, which hypothesises that negative life events increase the chance of a turn to criminality, is explored in this article alongside Control Theory. Based on a survey (N 1,138) conducted on Facebook in late 2019, we explore how strain and resilience based on participants’ gender, economic situations, life events and their use of the internet impacts individuals’ far-right extremist attitudes and behaviours. We use regression analysis to investigate the impact that strain and resilience, individuals’ gender, economic situations, individual life experiences, and their use of the internet have on their propensity to associate, engage, and support far-right ideologies and linked violence. While strain is not found to be significant, resilience, gender and the use of the internet are.

University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Joshua Skoczylis, University of Lincoln, School of Social and Political Sciences

Sam Andrews, University of Lincoln, School of Social and Political Sciences


A systematic review of practitioner enquiry into adverse childhood experiences in primary care

This article presents the findings of a systematic review undertaken to assess adverse childhood experiences (ACE) enquiry among practitioners of primary care for children’s services. Literature was eligible for inclusion if it included the primary care practitioner experience of ACE enquiry, was published from 1998–2021 and was in English. The most frequently cited themes across all included studies were time and training, with time the most commonly cited barrier. The findings indicate that aspects of the health visitor service model include facilitators to integrate ACE enquiry into routine health visitor practice, although the research highlights barriers of time and resources. Further research is required to expand the limited evidence base for incorporating ACE enquiry into health visitor practice in the UK and to similar models of care internationally.

University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Louise Ashe, Derbyshire Community Health Service NHS Trust

David Nelson, University of Lincoln, Lincoln International Institute for Rural Health

Aneesa Lindau, Chesterfield Royal Hospital NHS Foundation Trust

Ian McGonagle, University of Lincoln, School of Health and Social Care

Ros Kane, University of Lincoln, School of Health and Social Care


Evidence-based Practice for Nurses and Allied Health Professionals

This book guides nursing and healthcare students through the central concepts of evidence-based practice to help them gain a critical understanding of what evidence is, why it is important and how it should be applied in healthcare.

The new edition reflects contemporary approaches to practice, drawing from lessons learned during the Covid-19 pandemic, and includes a new chapter on the difference between evaluation, audit and research.

Key features:

  • Includes interesting activities and case studies which help consolidate learning
  • Provides a collection of critiquing tools and templates to use when reading research and evidence

Unpacks the terminology that comes with this subject in a detailed glossary



Lincolnshire Learning Lab Introduces: Active Online Reading

On: Wednesday 6th April 2022

Time: 3:30pm to 5pm

Learn more about how students read online, what they think about how we teach them to do so, and how their online reading habits relate to their transition to study at university. 

At all levels of education, reading is ubiquitous – it is relevant for all disciplines and all students.. Students’ reading practices have transformed over the past 20 years, with the increasing digitisation of resources, the emergence and then ubiquity of virtual learning environments, and the widespread use of mobile technologies. The pandemic has accelerated such developments, with the rapid roll-out of online and blended learning. Yet we know strikingly little about how students read online, how this relates to their overall learning, and which pedagogic strategies are effective.

Since 2021, colleagues from the University of Lincoln, the University of Nottingham, UCL, and Talis Education have been running a project that explores ‘active online reading’. This project explored digital reading practices and pedagogies across institutions, addressing students’ collaborative and independent reading activities. As part of the project, we ran surveys of staff and students that explored their digital reading practices and pedagogies in Higher Education, gaining over 700 responses.

Online reading is fundamental to the transition to higher-level study (learning new ways of reading, ‘unlearning’ old habits) and to disciplinarily (reading in a particular subject). In this session, we will introduce the project, before outlining our findings in relation to the reading practices and experiences of first year students, with a particular focus on the issue of transition to disciplinary study in higher education. We will then move on to outline what our research suggests are particularly effective strategies for teaching students to read actively in online and offline contexts.


  • Introduction to the Active Online Reading project
  • Survey results: transition and disciplinarity
  • Pedagogy: what works (and what doesn’t)


Jamie Wood is Professor of History and Education in the School of History and Heritage at the University of Lincoln. He has been working on pedagogic development projects in HE History for over 15 years, with a particular focus on technology-enhanced and active learning. This work has been funded by the Higher Education Academy, the Quality Assurance Agency and others. In 2014, he a held visiting a visiting fellowship at the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, where he led a project on the use of technology to teach ‘text-based’ disciplines in HE. In 2021 he won the Royal Historical Society’s Teaching Innovation prize for his ongoing work on online reading.