A Monkey’s Balancing Act: How species in the wild are managing the risks and rewards of sharing space with humans

Dr Bonaventura Majolo, University of Lincoln, College of Social Science, School of Psychology

The study, which looks specifically at the behaviour of an endangered monkey species, reveals that even in national parks where human presence is reduced and regulated, the animals carry out careful calculations and modify their natural behaviour to balance the pros and cons of living in close proximity to humans.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Bonaventura Majolo, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology


 

 

A Legal-Historical Chronicle of Rule-of-Law Narratives in Hong Kong. In: Global Legal History: A Comparative Law Perspective.

Dr Andra Le Roux-Kemp, University of Lincoln, College of Social Science, Lincoln Law School

“For the past five months (since June 2019), the city of Hong Kong, a Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China, has been the scene of large-scale anti-government protests. Originally, these protests were against an extradition bill tabled in the Legislative Council, and which would have allowed for the extradition of suspects, not only from Hong Kong to Taiwan, but also to the People’s Republic of China. While the extradition bill was formally withdrawn by the government in September 2019, the protests show no sign of abating, as protestors demand that all five their demands be met. (The fifth demand, the withdrawal of the extradition bill has been met. What remains is for (1) the protests not to be characterised as a “riot”, (2) arrested protestors to receive amnesty, (3) an independent inquiry be established into alleged police brutality, and (4) the implementation of complete universal suffrage.)

To better understand the complex geo-political realities of the city often described as a place where “East meets West”, see the book chapter “A legal-historical chronical of Rule-of-Law narratives in Hong Kong” by Dr. Andra le Roux-Kemp, published in Global Legal History A comparative Perspective (2018) Tate, de Lima Lopes & Botero-Bernal (eds.) In this Chapter, it is shown how law, and specifically the concept “Rule of Law” is used by HongKongers as a constitutive and confrontational rhetoric, to establish and reaffirm a collective identity, and also as a divisive measure to separate and distinguish Hong Kong  from the People’s Republic of China.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Andra Le Roux-Kemp, University of Lincoln, Lincoln Law School


 

Warfare in an evolutionary perspective

Dr Bonaventura Majolo, University of Lincoln, College of Social Science, School of Psychology

 

The importance of warfare for human evolution is hotly debated in anthropology. Some authors hypothesize that warfare emerged at least 200,000–100,000 years BP, was frequent, and significantly shaped human social evolution. Other authors claim that warfare is a recent phenomenon, linked to the emergence of agriculture, and mostly explained by cultural rather than evolutionary forces. Here I highlight and critically evaluate six controversial points on the evolutionary bases of warfare. I argue that cultural and evolutionary explanations on the emergence of warfare are not alternative but analyze biological diversity at two distinct levels. An evolved propensity to act aggressively toward outgroup individuals may emerge irrespective of
whether warfare appeared early/late during human evolution. Finally, I argue that lethal violence and aggression toward outgroup individuals are two linked but distinct phenomena, and that war and peace are complementary and should not always be treated as two mutually exclusive behavioural responses.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science

Bonaventura Majolo, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology


 

Facial Trustworthiness and Criminal Sentencing: A Comment on Wilson and Rule

Our first impressions of others, whether accurate or unfounded, have real-world consequences in terms of how we judge and treat those people. Previous research has suggested that criminal sentencing is influenced by the perceived facial trustworthiness of defendants in murder trials. In real cases, those who appeared less trustworthy were more likely to receive death rather than life sentences. Here, we carried out several attempts to replicate this finding, utilizing the original set of stimuli (Study 1), multiple images of each identity (Study 2), and a larger sample of identities (Study 3). In all cases, we found little support for the association between facial trustworthiness and sentencing. Furthermore, there was clear evidence that the specific image chosen to depict each identity had a significant influence on subsequent judgements. Taken together, our findings suggest that perceptions of facial trustworthiness have no real-world influence on sentencing outcomes in serious criminal cases.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Robin Kramer, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology

Ellen M. Gardner, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology


 

Dance teachers’ perceptions of boys and girls in their dance classes

Prof Jacquelyn Allen-Collinson, University of Lincoln, College of Social Science, School of Sport and Exercise Science

Dance, particularly ballet, is often considered a feminised activity and gender traditionally tends to be drawn along binary lines. Traditional notions of idealised gendered bodies in dance are often valorised. Psychologically, girls are expected to be passive, by unquestioningly accepting the instructions of the dance teacher, whereas boys are encouraged to be challenging, energetic and daring.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science

Helen Clegg, The University of Northampton

Helen Owton, The Open University

Jacquelyn Allen-Collinson, University of Lincoln, School of Sport and Exercise Science


 

Somnophilia: Examining Its Various Forms and Associated Constructs

Dr Ross Bartels, University of Lincoln, College of Social Science, School of Psychology

Somnophilia refers to the interest in having sex with a sleeping person. Using an online sample of 437 participants, the present study provides the first empirical examination of somnophilia, its various forms, and theorized correlates. Participants completed the newly developed Somnophilia Interest and Proclivity Scale, which comprises three subscales (active consensual, passive consensual, and active nonconsensual somnophilia). To test hypotheses about the convergent and divergent validity of different paraphilic interests, participants also completed scales measuring necrophilic, rape-related, and sadistic/masochistic sexual fantasies, rape proclivity, and the need for sexual dominance/submission.

Male participants scored higher than females on all scales except the passive subscale. For both males and females, each subscale was associated most strongly with conceptually congruent variables. These results support existing theoretical assumptions about somnophilia, as well as offering newer insights, such as distinguishing between active and passive somnophilia. Limitations and implications for further research are discussed.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Ross Bartels, University of Lincoln

Elizabeth Deehan, University of Lincoln


 

Recent levels and trends in HIV incidence rates among adolescent girls and young women in ten high-prevalence African countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis

The roll-out of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has changed contexts of HIV risk, but the influence on HIV incidence among young women is not clear. We aimed to summarise direct estimates of HIV incidence among adolescent girls and young women since ART and before large investments in targeted prevention for those in sub-Saharan Africa.

 

We did a systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, Global Health, and CINAHL for studies reporting HIV incidence data from serological samples collected among females aged 15–24 years in ten countries (Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe) that were selected for DREAMS investment in 2015. We only included articles published in English. Our main outcome was to summarise recent levels and trends in HIV incidence estimates collected between 2005 and 2015, published or received from study authors, by age and sex, and pooled by region.

51 studies were identified from nine of the ten DREAMS countries; no eligible studies from Lesotho were identified. Directly observed HIV incidence rates were lowest among females aged 13–19 years in Kumi, Uganda (0·38 cases per 100 person-years); and directly observed HIV incidence rates were highest in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (7·79 per 100 person-years among females aged 15–19 years, and 8·63 in those aged 20–24 years), among fishing communities in Uganda (12·40 per 100 person-years in females aged 15–19 years and 4·70 in those aged 20–24 years), and among female sex workers aged 18–24 years in South Africa (13·20 per 100 person-years) and Zimbabwe (10·80). In pooled rates from the general population studies, the greatest sex differentials were in the youngest age groups—ie, females aged 15–19 years compared with male peers in both southern African (pooled relative risk 5·94, 95% CI 3·39–10·44) and eastern African countries (3·22, 1·51–6·87), and not significantly different among those aged 25–29 years in either region. Incidence often peaked earlier (during teenage years) among high-risk groups compared with general populations. Since 2005, HIV incidence among adolescent girls and young women declined in Rakai (Uganda) and Manicaland (Zimbabwe), and also declined among female sex workers in Kenya, but not in the highest-risk communities in South Africa and Uganda.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Isolde Birdthistle, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Department of Population Health, 

Clare Tanton, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology

Andrew Tomita, Centre for Rural Health, School of Nursing and Public Health, and KwaZulu-Natal Research Innovation and Sequencing Platform (KRISP)

Kristende Graaf, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Department of Population Health

Susan BSchaffnit, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Department of Population Health

Frank Tanser, Africa Centre Building, Africa Health Research Institute and University of Lincoln, Lincoln Institute for Health

Emma Slaymaker, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Department of Population Health, 


 

Television Consumption Drives Perceptions of Female Body Attractiveness in a Population Undergoing Technological Transition

Dr Tracey Thornborrow, University of Lincoln, College of Social Science, School of PsychologyProf Martin Tovee, University of Lincoln, College of Social Science, School of Psychology

 

 

 

 

Perceptions of physical attractiveness vary across cultural groups, particularly for female body size and shape. It has been hypothesised that visual media propagates Western ‘thin ideals’. However, because cross-cultural studies typically consider groups highly differentiated on a number of factors, identifying the causal factors has thus far been impossible. In the present research, we conducted ‘naturalistic’ and controlled experiments to test the influence of media access on female body ideals in a remote region of Nicaragua by sampling from villages with and without regular television access.

We found that greater television consumption remained a significant predictor of preferences for slimmer, curvier female figures after controlling for a range of other factors in an ethnically balanced sample of 299 individuals (150 female, aged 15-79) across 7 villages. Within-individual analyses in one village over 3 years also showed an association between increased TV consumption and preferences for slimmer figures amongst some participants. Finally, an experimental study in two low-media locations demonstrates that exposure to media images of fashion models can directly impact participants’ body size ideals.

We thus provide the first converging cross-sectional, longitudinal and experimental evidence from field-based research, that media exposure can drive changes in perceptions of female attractiveness.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

L.G Boothroyd, Durham University, Department of Psychology

L.J Jucker, Durham University, Department of Psychology and Universidad de las Regiones Autónomas de la Costa Caribe Nicaragüense

T. Thornborrow, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology

R. Barton, Durham University, Department of Anthropology

D.M Burt, Newcastle University, School of Psychology

E.H Evans, Newcastle University, School of Psychology

M Jamieson, University of East London, School of Social Sciences

M.J Tovee, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology