Eye Movements in the “Morris Maze” Spatial Working Memory Task Reveal Deficits in Strategic Planning

Dr Kyla Pennington, University of Lincoln, College of Social Science, School of Psychology, UoL CoSS researchProf Timothy Hodgson, University of Lincoln, College of Social Science, School of Psychology, UoL CoSS research

 

 

 

 

Analysis of eye movements can provide insights into processes underlying performance of cognitive tasks. We recorded eye movements in healthy participants and people with idiopathic Parkinson disease during a token foraging task based on the spatial working memory component of the widely used Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Participants selected boxes (using a mouse click) to reveal hidden tokens. Tokens were never hidden under a box where one had been found before, such that memory had to be used to guide box selections. A key measure of performance in the task is between search errors (BSEs) in which a box where a token has been found is selected again. Eye movements were found to be most commonly directed toward the next box to be clicked on, but fixations also occurred at rates higher than expected by chance on boxes farther ahead or back along the search path. Looking ahead and looking back in this way was found to correlate negatively with BSEs and was significantly reduced in patients with Parkinson disease. Refixating boxes where tokens had already been found correlated with BSEs and the severity of Parkinson disease symptoms. It is concluded that eye movements can provide an index of cognitive planning in the task. Refixations on locations where a token has been found may also provide a sensitive indicator of visuospatial memory integrity. Eye movement measures derived from the spatial working memory task may prove useful in the assessment of executive functions as well as neurological and psychiatric diseases in the future.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Prof Timothy Hogdson, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology

Frouke Hermens, University of Lincoln

Dr Kyla Pennington, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology

Jade Pickering, University of Lincoln

Gemma Ezard, University of Lincoln

Richard Clarke, University of Exeter

Jagdish Sharma, University of Lincoln and Lincoln County Hospital

Adrian Owen, Western Univeristy, London, Ontario, Canada


 

Modulatory mechanisms underlying high-frequency transcranial random noise stimulation (hf-tRNS): A combined stochastic resonance and equivalent noise approach.

Dr Andrea Pavan, University of Lincoln, College of Social Science, School of Psychology

Prof George Mather, University of Lincoln, College of Social Science, School of Psychology, UoL CoSS research

 

 

 

 

 

High-frequency transcranial random noise stimulation (hf-tRNS) is a neuromodulatory technique consisting of the application of alternating current at random intensities and frequencies. hf-tRNS induces random neural activity in the system that may boost the sensitivity of neurons to weak inputs. Stochastic resonance is a nonlinear phenomenon whereby the addition of an optimal amount of noise results in performance enhancement, whereas further noise increments impair signal detection or discrimination.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Andrea Pavan, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology

Filipo Ghin, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology

Adriano Contillo, University of Ferrara, Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra

Chiara Milesi, University of Padova, Dipartimento di Psicologia Generale

Gianluca Campana, University of Padova, Dipartimento di Psicologia Generale

Geroge Mather, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology


 

Inter-institutional Relationships in Global Health: Regulating Coordination and Ensuring Accountability

Dr Scarlett McArdle, University of Lincoln, College of Social Science, Lincoln Law School, UoL CoSS Research

In this paper we will explore issues related to the governance of inter-organisational relationships in the field of global health – taking the multi-layered response to the 2014 West African Ebola Outbreak as our point of departure. We note that, ideally organisations engaged in global health activity would have a clear set of governance rules that would guide their behaviours, and set expectations for collaborating with other organisations, though this is rarely the case. More broadly, we highlight that there is no overarching set of principles that would cover all the possible ways in which collaborations can take place. We conclude by suggesting some principles to guide collaboration between organisations engaged in global health in the future.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science

Dr Scarlett McArdle, University of Lincoln, Lincoln Law School


 

Mixed methods, mixed outcomes? Combining an RCT and case studies to research the impact of a training programme for primary school science teachers

Prof Ian Abrahams, University of Lincoln, College of Social Science, School of Education, UoL research CoSS

A randomised controlled trial (RCT) and a series of case studies were used to determine the impact of two variants of an intervention (a professional development programme) aimed at improving primary school science teachers’ subject and pedagogic content knowledge, and enhancing their subject leadership ability. Ninety-six schools were randomly assigned to full or partial treatment groups or a ‘business-as-usual’ control group. Quantitative data were collected from teachers and pupils through an assessment of scientific knowledge based on standardised assessment items. Qualitative data were collected through interviews and lesson observation initially in thirty case study schools. There were three data collection points: pre- and post-intervention, and one year later.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Judith Bennett, University of York, Department of Education

Prof Ian Abrahams, University of Lincoln, School of Education

Louise Elliott, University of York, York Trials Unit

Maria Turkenburg-van Diepen, University of York, Department of Education


 

Effect of ART scale-up and female migration intensity on risk of HIV acquisition: results from a population-based cohort in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Despite increased antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage, the incidence of HIV infection among women in rural South Africa remains high. While many socio-demographic and behavioral factors have been identified, the effect of female migration intensity on the risk of HIV acquisition before and after ART scale-up has not been evaluated in the country.

We followed 13,315 female participants aged 15–49 who were HIV-uninfected at baseline and recorded their migration events between 2004 and 2015. Using a Cox proportional hazard model, we estimated the time to HIV acquisition among the women, adjusting for annual migration intensity (high: ≥2 events/year, moderate = 1 event/year, and low = 0 event/year) before and after ART scale-up in 2010.

1998 (15%) new HIV-infection events were recorded during the observation period. Overall, high migration intensity was associated with an increased HIV acquisition risk among women when compared with low migration intensity (HR = 2.88, 95% CI: 1.56–5.53). Among those with high migration intensity, the risk of HIV acquisition was significantly lower in the post-ART period compared to the pre-ART period, after controlling for key socio-demographic and behavioural covariates (aHR = 0.18, 95% CI 0.04–0.83).

Women who migrated frequently after ART scale-up had a significantly reduced HIV acquisition risk compared to those before its implementation. While this reduction is encouraging, women who migrate frequently remain at high risk of HIV acquisition. In the era of ART, there remains a critical need for public health interventions to reduce the risk of HIV acquisition in this highly vulnerable population.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Armtsrong Dzomba, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, School of Nursing and Public Health, Africa Health Research Institute (AHRI), Research Innovation and Sequencing Platform (KRISP)

Andrew Tomita, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, Africa Health Research Institute (AHRI), KwaZulu-Natal Research Innovation and Sequencing Platform (KRISP), Centre for Rural Health, School of Nursing and Public Health

Alain Vandormael, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, Africa Health Research Institute (AHRI), School of Nursing and Public Health, KwaZulu-Natal Research Innovation and Sequencing Platform (KRISP)

Kaymarlin Govender, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Health Economics and HIV and AIDS Research Division (HEARD)

Frank Tanser, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, Africa Health Research Institute (AHRI), School of Nursing and Public Health, Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), University College London, Research Department of Infection & Population Health, and University of Lincoln, Lincoln Institute for Health


Understanding Economic Abuse Through an Intersectional Lens: Financial Abuse, Control, and Exploitation of Women’s Productive and Reproductive Labor

Financial abuse refers to men’s control over money, assets, and women’s education or paid work. As a corrective to existing undertheorization of men’s (and their family’s) abuse of and control over women’s unpaid (domestic) labor, this article proposes a new conceptualization of economic abuse. Drawing upon life-history interviews with 41 South Asian women from the United Kingdom and India, this article explores control and abuse in relation to financial resources and women’s paid work as well as unpaid work. It utilizes an intersectional perspective to explore how gender, migration status, race/ethnicity, and class can improve understanding of women’s experiences as a continuum of economic abuse.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Sundari Anitha, University of Lincoln, School of Social and Political Sciences


 

British Academy ‘Representing Homelessness’ Conference

Location: University of Lincoln

Date: Thu 18th Jul 2019, 09:00 to Fri 19th Jul 2019, 17:00

Book here: https://www.thebritishacademy.ac.uk/events/representing-homelessness

Homelessness is a lived experience for many thousands of people every day. This experience is routinely captured in different kinds of texts: newspapers, TV scripts, novels, expert research, government policy documents, and the law. Broadly-defined, texts have an enormous impact upon public perceptions of homelessness, but are also used by homeless people to represent their condition to others and to themselves. This multidisciplinary conference will examine the ‘textuality’ of homelessness across a range of areas, bringing together activists, journalists, artists, academics, and people who have personal experience of homelessness.

Convenors:
Dr Owen Clayton, University of Lincoln
Katie Dorr, University of Lincoln
Nigel Horner, University of Lincoln
Professor Peter Somerville, University of Lincoln

Speakers include:
Dr Tymon Adamczewski, Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego, Poland
Alex Andreou, Writer
Lord John Bird MBEThe Big Issue (Provisional)
Tessa Buchanan, Garden Court Chambers
Professor Phil Brown, University of Salford
Dr Owen Clayton, University of Lincoln
Dr Juliet Foster, Kings College London
Nigel Horner, University of Lincoln
Jon Kuhrt, Ministry for Housing, Communities & Local Government
Anthony Luvera, Coventry University
Lucy Picksley, University of Lincoln
Dr Susan A. Phillips, Pitzer College, California
Radcliffe Royds, Writer and performer
Dr Ligia Teixeira, The Centre for Homelessness Impact
Dr Beth Watts, Heriot-Watt University

A draft programme is available here:

Registration
This event will take place at the University of Lincoln. A registration fee is payable at the time of booking.

If you have any questions please email Dr Owen Claytonoclayton@lincoln.ac.uk