Hierarchies of Masculinity and Lad Culture on Campus: Bad Guys, Good Guys and Complicit Men

Research on ‘lad culture’ and gender-based violence (GBV) in student communities has examined ‘hypermasculine’ gender performances, with little attention paid to hierarchies of masculinity. We explore ‘lad culture’ by analysing qualitative, in-depth interviews with students. Our findings challenge simplistic constructions of ‘good guys’ as allies/protectors in opposition to hypermasculinised, deviant ‘bad guys’. We demonstrate how such binary constructions are premised upon gendered norms of men-as-protectors/women-as-weak, and bolster problematic hierarchies of masculinity. We also highlight the crucial role of complicit masculinity in maintaining GBV-tolerant cultures. Our research suggests academic understandings of lad culture could benefit from a more comprehensive picture of the relationship between masculinity/ies and campus GBV. By theorising complex negotiations of hegemonic masculinity in this context, the paper also advances conceptual debates around the promise/limitations of changing, ‘softer’ masculinities. Practice implications include rethinking how/whether prevention education can deploy ‘softer’ masculinities whilst avoiding reinstating gender hierarchies that ultimately scaffold GBV.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Ana Jordan, University of Lincoln, School of Social and Political Sciences

Sundari Anitha, University of Lincoln, School of Social and Political Sciences

Jill Jameson, Independent Researcher

Zowie Davy, De Montfort University, School of Applied Social Sciences


 

Ageing Without Children in East Lindsey: Ageing Diversities

The Healthy Ageing Research Group at the University of Lincoln and TED in East Lindsey with East Lindsey District Council held an online learning event on Thursday 2 December focussing on Ageing Without Children in East Lindsey.

The keynote presentation, delivered by Professor Mo Ray of the Healthy Ageing Research Group at the University of Lincoln, discussed findings from research conducted over the summer on the experiences of Ageing Without Children in East Lindsey. The event launched findings from the briefing report on Ageing Without Children in rural and coastal communities – thought to be the first study of its kind.

We are pleased to share with you the briefing report and slides from the event and a recording for those of you who were unable to access the event.

 

The Flow-Clutch Scale: Development and preliminary validation in sport and exercise

Objectives

The Integrated Model of Flow and Clutch States describes two overlapping psychological states that underlie exceptional performance and rewarding exercise experiences. However, research based on this model is currently hampered because no validated measure has yet been developed. Therefore, the aim of this multi-study paper was to develop and provide preliminary validation of the Flow-Clutch Scale in sport and exercise.

Design

Using two independent adult samples (n = 280; n = 264), three studies were conducted to develop and establish preliminary validity of the Flow-Clutch Scale.

Method

In Study 1, we developed an initial version of the scale and established content validity using an expert panel. In Study 2, we employed exploratory factor analysis to: identify the most appropriate factor structure; examine the scale’s internal consistency; test whether the scale differentiated between individuals who experience flow, clutch, or neither state; and examine relationships with the Flow State Scale-2. In Study 3, we aimed to replicate findings of Study 2 with an independent sample, and employed confirmatory factor analysis to confirm the factor structure, internal consistency, and relationships with the Flow State Scale-2.

Results

The results provide preliminary validation of the four-factor, 22-item Flow-Clutch Scale.

Conclusions

These studies indicate the Flow-Clutch Scale represents a useful scale for researchers interested in examining flow and/or clutch states in sport and exercise. Recommendations are provided for further research to continue testing, and accumulating evidence for, the validity and reliability of the Flow-Clutch Scale.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Christian Swann, Southern Cross University, Faculty of Health

Janelle Driscoll, Southern Cross University, Faculty of Health

Scott G. Goddard, Southern Cross University, Faculty of Health

Royce Willis, Southern Cross University, Faculty of Health

Matthew J. Schweickle, University of Wollongong, School of Psychology

Ingrid Araujo Fernandes Ribeiro, Southern Cross University, Faculty of Health

Matthew Gatt, Southern Cross University, Faculty of Health

Patricia C. Jackman, University of Lincoln, School of Sport and Exercise Science

Stewart A. Vella, University of Wollongong, School of Psychology


Prevent, Ideology and Ideological State Apparatus: Analysing Terrorism Prevention Policies Using Althusser’s Framework

The work of Louis Althusser is well regarded in the study of ideology, having been used to analyse the material basis for ideology, and challenging the idea that ideology is simply a product of the mind. Recent advances in counterterrorism have seen many states adopting preventative programmes which are non-violent, and nominally voluntary, attempting to deradicalise or steer subjects away from radical ideologies, in an attempt to stem terrorist recruits. Many of these programmes claim not to be ideological. Prevent, which is the UK’s preventative counterterrorism programme, claims not to be ideological, but rather only concerned with stopping extremist ideologies. Using Althusser’s Ideological State Apparatus (ISA) framework, this article explores the ideological and material basis of Prevent, arguing that while Prevent assures us of its non-ideological nature, at its core is a programme that is part of the reproductive ideological apparatus of the state.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Sam Andrews, University of Lincoln, School of Social and Political Sciences

Joshua Skoczylis, University of Lincoln, School of Social and Political Sciences


Self-disgust as a potential mechanism underlying the association between body image disturbance and suicidal thoughts and behaviours

This study examined whether self-disgust added incremental variance to and mediated the multivariate association between measures of body image disturbance and suicidal thoughts and behaviours. We hypothesized that self-disgust would be associated with suicidal ideation above the effects of body image disturbance, and that self-disgust would mediate the relationship between body image disturbance and suicidal ideation. A total of N=728 participants completed The Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire, The Self-Disgust Scale, and the Suicidal Behaviours Questionnaire-Revised. Suicidality was significantly related to increased levels of self-disgust and body image disturbance, whereas self-disgust was associated with greater body image disturbance. Linear regression analysis showed that self-disgust was associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviours, over and above the effects of body image disturbance. Multiple mediation modelling further showed that self-disgust mediated the relationship between body image disturbance and suicidal thoughts and behaviours. Our findings highlight the role of self-disgust in the context of body image disturbance and support the notion that body image disturbance is associated with aversive self-conscious emotions. Interventions aiming to reduce the risk of suicidality in people with body image disturbance may address self-disgust and negative self-conscious emotions.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science

Umair Akram, Sheffield Hallam University, Department of Psychology, Sociology and Politics

Sarah Allen, University of Teesside, School of Social Sciences, Humanities and Law

Jodie C. Stevenson, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology

Lambros Lazarus, University of Derby, Department of Psychology

Antonia Ypsilanti, Sheffield Hallam University, Department of Psychology, Sociology and Politics

Millicent Ackroyd, University of Derby, Department of Psychology

Jessica Chester, University of Derby, Department of Psychology

Jessica Longden, Sheffield Hallam University, Department of Psychology, Sociology and Politics

Chloe Peters, Sheffield Hallam University, Department of Psychology, Sociology and Politics

Kamilla R. Irvine, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology


 

Livestock microbial landscape patterns: Retail poultry microbiomes significantly vary by region and season

Microbes play key roles in animal welfare and food safety but there is little understanding of whether microbiomes associated with livestock vary in space and time. Here we analysed the bacteria associated with the carcasses of the same breed of 28 poultry broiler flocks at different stages of processing across two climatically similar UK regions over two seasons with 16S metabarcode DNA sequencing. Numbers of taxa types did not differ by region, but did by season (P = 1.2 × 10−19), and numbers increased with factory processing, especially in summer. There was also a significant (P < 1 × 10−4) difference in the presences and abundances of taxa types by season, region and factory processing stage, and the signal for seasonal and regional differences remained highly significant on final retail products. This study therefore revealed that both season and region influence the types and abundances of taxa on retail poultry products. That poultry microbiomes differ in space and time should be considered when testing the efficacy of microbial management interventions designed to increase animal welfare and food safety: these may have differential effects on livestock depending on location and timing.


B.J. Schofield, University of Lincoln, School of Life Sciences

N.A. Andreani, University of Lincoln, School of Life Sciences

C.S.Günther, University of Lincoln, School of Life Sciences

G.R Law, University of Lincoln, School of Health and Social Care

G. McMahon, Moy Park Ltd.

M. Swainson, University of Lincoln, National Centre for Food Manufacturing

M.R. Goddard, University of Lincoln, School of Life Sciences