Intergroup lethal gang attacks in wild crested macaques, Macaca nigra

Lethal gang attacks, in which multiple aggressors attack a single victim, are among the most widespread forms of violence between human groups. Gang attacks are also frequent in some other social mammals, such as chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, wolves, Canis lupus, spotted hyaenas, Crocuta crocuta, and meerkats, Suricata suricatta. So far, species in which gang attacks have been observed share one or more of these socioecological features: territoriality, fission–fusion, cooperative breeding or coalitionary bonds. However, the scarcity of data in other taxa makes it challenging to determine whether one/all of these socioecological features is necessary and sufficient to drive the evolution of gang attacks. Here we describe the first reports of intergroup gang attacks in the crested macaque, using data on three groups collected over 13 years, with the joint observation times for the three groups summing to 37 years. Crested macaque gangs attacked outgroup conspecifics when aggressors were numerically superior to victims. Adult females were the most frequent age/sex category to attack outgroup conspecifics. The victims were mostly adult females and infants. We propose that coalitionary bonds, hostility towards outgroup individuals and the ability to estimate numerical odds may suffice to trigger intergroup gang attacks when the conditions favour an imbalance of power between victims and attackers.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Laura Martínez-Íñigo, University of Lincoln, School of Life Sciences and Guinean Representation, Wild Chimpanzee Foundation, 

Antje Engelhardt,  Liverpool John Moores University, School of Biological and Environmental Science

Muhammad Agil, Bogor Agricultural University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine

Malgorzata Pilot, University of Lincoln, School of Life Sciences and Polish Academy of Sciences, Museum and Institute of Zoology

Bonaventura Majolo, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology


 

Parenting styles and types: Breastfeeding attitudes in a large sample of mothers

The importance of breastfeeding for both maternal and infant health is well established. However, it remains the case that only a small percentage of infants are breastfed after the first six months of life. Maternal negative breastfeeding attitudes are associated with a reduced likelihood of breastfeeding an infant, but they are a malleable target for practitioner interventions. By adjusting perceptions, and therefore behaviours within the population, maternal and infant health outcomes may be improved. As such, it is important to understand whether certain types of mother might feel more negatively about breastfeeding. Here. we investigated the relationships between parenting styles, personality traits, and breastfeeding attitudes. In addition, we aimed to address the interrelated nature of parenting styles by identifying ‘types’ of mother who may feel more negatively about breastfeeding.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Abi M.B. Davis, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology and The Open University, School of Psychology and Counselling

Charlotte Coleman, The Open University, School of Psychology and Counselling and Sheffield Hallam University, Department of Psychology

Robin S.S. Kramer, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology


Professor Elizabeth Kirk Joins Prof Des Fitzgerald, University of Exeter and Prof Tanya Wyatt, University of Northumbria to talk about all things environmental law on the BBC Radio 3 Green Thinking Podcast this week.

Professor Elizabeth Kirk, of the Lincoln Centre for Ecological Justice and Lincoln Law School, joined Prof Des Fitzgerald, University of Exeter and Prof Tanya Wyatt, University of Northumbria to talk about all things environmental law on the BBC Radio 3 Green Thinking Podcast this week.

Professor Kirk discussed the challenges of making and enforcing environmental law, drawing examples from AHRC funded research on the regulation of offshore oil and gas installations in the Arctic, promotion of energy efficiency measures, and tackling plastics pollution and the climate crisis. The discussion drew out the challenges of making laws that are suitable to address a rapidly changing environment, the need for clear standard setting to address greenhouse gas emissions and the need for independent inspection and enforcement mechanisms to hold States to account for breaches of their international obligations.

When asked what she would like to see as the outcome from COP26, Professor Kirk suggested that rather than asking States to commit to overarching reductions in greenhouse gases, we need clear standards on, for example, insulation for homes and on emissions from transport and indeed transport planning, or, at the very least, a mechanism to establish such standards.

International Student Research Seminar Series is a Success

The Lincoln Sport and Exercise Psychology Research Club’s first seminar series in partnership with the Motivation of Health Behaviours (MoHB) Lab at Central Queensland University (CQU), Australia recently concluded after six excellent seminars focused on student research projects.

During 2021, six undergraduate or postgraduate students in the School of Sport and Exercise Science and six Honours students from the MoHB Lab delivered talks on their research projects. Recent BSc Health and Exercise Science graduate, Dona Hall, who joined the Lincoln Sport and Exercise Psychology Research Club as a first year and recently commenced a PhD at the University of Lincoln, delivered a presentation about her research on visually impaired running. Reflecting on her experience, Dona said, “Attending the MoHB Lab broadened my interests and made me feel connected to the international research community. It was helpful being able to cut my teeth presenting my work to such a friendly and supportive group”. University of Lincoln MSc Sport Science student and BSc Sport and Exercise Science graduate Esther Carter, who recently started a PhD at the University of Hull, talked about her research on the effects of green exercise and remarked that, “It was a great opportunity and privilege to share my research findings and be able to build my confidence for presenting in front of a friendly network. I enjoyed discussing the outcomes and potential future directions with staff and students with a diverse range of academic interests both in the UK and Australia.”

Similarly, students from the MoHB Lab spoke about the benefits of taking part in the series. Ashlee Forshaw, a Bachelor of Psychological Science (Honours), commented, “This experience has been fabulous. It’s great to see other young researchers from different countries get together and share their research. It has also helped me gain confidence in presenting and create connections with other aspiring academics”. Kristie-Lee Alfrey (PhD Candidate), also spoke of how inspirational the seminar series has been: “Sharing insights and learning about each other’s research has been really inspiring. I particularly like hearing about the different perspectives and methods we all use, and I often find myself wondering how I could integrate all these exciting components into my own research.”. MoHB Lab Director, Associate Professor Amanda Rebar, also spoke about the benefits for students at CQU: “It provides a safe, encouraging space for students to practice presenting and answering questions about their work. It’s also really invaluable for me to help learn about new methodologies and expand my thinking about what’s next for our research.”

Reflecting on the seminars over the last year, Dr Trish Jackman, who leads Lincoln Sport and Exercise Psychology Research, said: “Our seminar series with the MoHB Lab has given our students an opportunity to not only showcase their own research, but also to develop their professional network, gain feedback on their research, and build confidence in their presentation skills. We are already looking forward to organising this series again in 2022 and to hearing about many excellent student-led research projects”.

If you would like to join the seminar series in 2022, please email Trish (pjackman@lincoln.ac.uk). You can also follow the latest updates via @LincsSpExPsych on Twitter.

LSEP Presenters: Rachel Langbein, Ollie Williamson, Rebecca Hawkins, Dona Hall, Esther Carter, Georgia Clay

MoHB Presenters: Katie Newman, Lachie Irvine, Genevieve Cushan-Kain, Ashlee Forshaw, Matthew Hill, Kristie-Lee Alfrey

 

Collaborating on Climate Change

This week (1st-5th November), the University is hosting Climate Week, to engage staff, students and members of the public in climate action, in support of COP26, the climate change conference taking place in Glasgow.

On Wednesday 3rd November (1.45-5pm), the ‘Collaborating on Climate Change’ event is taking place in Stephen Langton Building (followed by drinks and networking) will showcase UoL Climate Change research.

We’d encourage colleagues across the University to attend and sign up via this link:

Collaborating on Climate Change: showcasing UoL Climate Change research Tickets, Wed 3 Nov 2021 at 13:45 | Eventbrite

Telephone peer recruitment and interviewing during a respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey: feasibility and field experience from the first phone-based RDS survey among men who have sex with men in Côte d’Ivoire

Background

Many respondent-driven sampling (RDS) methodologies have been employed to investigate hard-to-reach populations; however, these methodologies present some limits. We describe a minimally investigated RDS methodology in which peer recruitment and interviewing are phone-based. The feasibility of the methodology, field experiences, validity of RDS assumptions and characteristics of the sample obtained are discussed.

Methods

We conducted a phone-based RDS survey among men who have sex with men (MSM) aged 18 or above and living in Côte d’Ivoire. Eight initial MSM across Côte d’Ivoire were selected. Participants were asked to call a hotline to be registered and interviewed by phone. After the participants completed the questionnaire, they were asked to recruit a maximum of 3 MSM from their acquaintances.

Results

During the 9 months of the survey, 576 individuals called the hotline, and 518 MSM completed the questionnaire. The median delay between the invitation to participate and the completion of the questionnaire by peer-recruited MSM was 4 days [IQR: 1–12]. The recruitment process was not constant, with high variation in the number of people who called the hotline during the survey period.

RDS chain convergence to equilibrium was reached within 6 waves for most of the selected variables. For the network size estimation assumption, participants who incorrectly estimated their network size were observed.

Regarding the sample obtained, MSM were recruited from all the regions of Côte d’Ivoire with frequent interregional recruitment; 23.5% of MSM were recruited by someone who does not live in the same region. Compared to the MSM who participated in two other surveys in Côte d’Ivoire, the MSM in our sample were less likely to know about an MSM non-governmental organisation. However, MSM aged 30 years old and above and those with a low level of education were underrepresented in our sample.

Conclusion

We show that phone-based RDS surveys among MSM are feasible in the context of sub-Saharan Africa. Compared to other classical RDS survey methodologies, the phone-based RDS methodology seems to reduce selection bias based on geography and proximity with the MSM community. However, similar to other methodologies, phone-based RDS fails to reach older and less-educated MSM.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Maxime Inghels, University of Lincoln, Lincoln International Institute for Rural Health

Arsene Kra Kouassi, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Centre Population et Développement and Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Treichville, Programme PAC-CI/ANRS

Serge Niangoran, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Treichville, Programme PAC-CI/ANRS

Anne Bekelynck, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Centre Population et Développement and Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Treichville, Programme PAC-CI/ANRS

Séverine Carillon, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Centre Population et Développement

Lazare Sika, École Nationale Supérieure de Statistique et d’Economie Appliquée (ENSEA)

Mariatou Koné, Institut d’Ethno-Sociologie (IES)

Christine Danel, Université de Bordeaux, Institut d’Ethno-Sociologie (IES)

Annabel Desgrées du Loû, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Centre Population et Développement

Joseph Larmarange, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Centre Population et Développement