What is known about the role of rural-urban residency in relation to self-management in people affected by cancer who have completed primary treatment? A scoping review

Purpose

Despite wide acknowledgement of differences in levels of support and health outcomes between urban and rural areas, there is a lack of research that explicitly examines these differences in relation to self-management in people affected by cancer following treatment. This scoping review aimed to map the existing literature that examines self-management in people affected by cancer who were post-treatment from rural and urban areas.

Methods

Arksey and O’Malley’s framework for conducting a scoping review was utilised. Keyword searches were performed in the following: Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus and Web of Science. Supplementary searching activities were also conducted.

Results

A total of 438 articles were initially retrieved and 249 duplicates removed leaving 192 articles that were screened by title, abstract and full text. Nine met the eligibility criteria and were included in the review. They were published from 2011 to 2018 and conducted in the USA (n = 6), Australia (n = 2) and Canada (n = 1). None of the studies offered insight into self-managing cancer within a rural-urban context in the UK. Studies used qualitative (n = 4), mixed methods (n = 4) and quantitative designs (n = 1).

Conclusion

If rural and urban populations define their health in different ways as some of the extant literature suggests, then efforts to support self-management in both populations will need to be better informed by robust evidence given the increasing focus on patient-centred care. It is important to consider if residency can be a predictor of as well as a barrier or facilitator to self-management.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

David Nelson, University of Lincoln, School of Health and Social Care

Ian McGonagle, University of Lincoln, School of Health and Social Care

Christine Jackson, University of Lincoln, School of Health and Social Care

Ros Kane, University of Lincoln, School of Health and Social Care


 

The Relationship Between Gambling Event Frequency, Motor Response Inhibition, Arousal, and Dissociative Experience

Dr Georgina Gous, University of Lincoln, College of Social Science, School of Psychology

Speed of play has been identified as a key structural characteristic in gambling behaviour, where games involving higher playing speeds enhance the experience of gambling. Of interest in the present study is the consistent finding that games with higher event frequencies are preferred by problem gamblers and are associated with more negative gambling outcomes, such as difficulty quitting the game and increased monetary loss. The present study investigated the impact of gambling speed of play on executive control functioning, focusing on how increased speeds of play impact motor response inhibition, and the potential mediating role arousal and dissociative experience play in this relationship. Fifty regular non-problem gamblers took part in a repeated-measures experiment where they gambled with real money on a simulated slot machine across five speed of play conditions. Response inhibition was measured using an embedded Go/No-Go task, where participants had to withhold motor responses, rather than operating the spin button on the slot machine when a specific colour cue was present. Results indicated that response inhibition performance was significantly worse during faster speeds of play, and that the role of arousal in this relationship was independent of any motor priming affect. The implications of these findings for gambling legislation and gambling harm-minimisation approaches are discussed.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Andrew Harris, Nottingham Trent University, Psychology Department, International Gaming Research Unit

Bobbie de Wet, Nottingham Trent University, Psychology Department, International Gaming Research Unit

Mark D. Griffiths, Nottingham Trent University, Psychology Department, International Gaming Research Unit

Georgina Gous, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology


The role of spatial selective attention in the processing of affective prosodies in congenitally blind adults: An ERP study

Dr Julia Foecker, University of Lincoln, College of Social Science, School of Psychology

The question whether spatial selective attention is necessary in order to process vocal affective prosody has been controversially discussed in sighted individuals: whereas some studies argue that attention is required in order to process emotions, other studies conclude that vocal prosody can be processed even outside the focus of spatial selective attention. Here, we asked whether spatial selective attention is necessary for the processing of affective prosodies after visual deprivation from birth. For this purpose, pseudowords spoken in happy, neutral, fearful or threatening prosodies were presented at the left or right loudspeaker. Congenitally blind individuals (N = 8) and sighted controls (N = 13) had to attend to one of the loudspeakers and detect rare pseudowords presented at the attended loudspeaker during EEG recording. Emotional prosody of the syllables was task-irrelevant. Blind individuals outperformed sighted controls by being more efficient in detecting deviant syllables at the attended loudspeaker. A higher auditory N1 amplitude was observed in blind individuals compared to sighted controls. Additionally, sighted controls showed enhanced attention-related ERP amplitudes in response to fearful and threatening voices during the time range of the N1. By contrast, blind individuals revealed enhanced ERP amplitudes in attended relative to unattended locations irrespective of the affective valence in all time windows (110–350 ms). These effects were mainly observed at posterior electrodes. The results provide evidence for “emotion-general“ auditory spatial selective attention effects in congenitally blind individuals and suggest a potential reorganization of the voice processing brain system following visual deprivation from birth.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Pavlos Topalidis,  Ludwig Maximilian University, Department of Psychology and Educational Sciences

Artyom Zinchenko, Ludwig Maximilian University, Department of Psychology and Educational Sciences

Julia C. Gädeke, University of Hamburg, Biological Psychology and Neuropsychology

Julia cker, Unviersity of Lincoln, School of Psychology


 

Challenges of recruiting emergency department patients to a qualitative study: a thematic analysis of researchers’ experiences

Prof Niro Siriwardena, University of Lincoln, College of Social Science, School of Health and Social Care, Director of Community and Health Research Unit

At times of increasing pressure on emergency departments, and the need for research into different models of service delivery, little is known about how to recruit patients for qualitative research in emergency departments. We report from one study which aimed to collect evidence on patients’ experiences of attending emergency departments with different models of using general practitioners, but faced challenges in recruiting patients. This paper aims to identify and reflect on the challenges faced at all stages of patient recruitment, from identifying and inviting eligible patients, consenting them for participation and finally to engaging them in interviews, and make recommendations based on our learning.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Delyth Price, Cardiff University, School of Medicine, Division of Population Medicine

Michelle Edwards, Cardiff University, School of Medicine, Division of Population Medicine

Andrew Carson-Stevens, Cardiff University, School of Medicine, Division of Population Medicine

Alison Cooper, Cardiff University, School of Medicine, Division of Population Medicine

Freya Davies, Cardiff University, School of Medicine, Division of Population Medicine

Tim Rainer, Cardiff University, School of Medicine, Division of Population Medicine

Adrian Edwards, Cardiff University, School of Medicine, Division of Population Medicine


The Montreal Protocol or the Paris Agreement as a Model for a Plastics Treaty?

The notion that a plastics treaty is necessary is gaining traction, but there is less agreement as to its content. Some, including this author, have suggested that a plastics treaty should be modelled on treaties such as the Montreal Protocol, which sets out a broad commitment to end the use of a particular material and then introduce regulations to ban particular forms of that material over time. This approach has an immediate appeal—it sends a signal to states and to industry that they must change their behaviors and products, while giving time to adapt to the new regulation and develop alternative materials or ways of working. The potential drawback of this approach is that some states simply will not accept such rigid standards. In addition, some states may prefer a second approach that is more obviously rooted in the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, which assigns different obligations to parties according to their respective capacities. Within the climate change regime, the Paris Agreement takes both approaches, asking states to set their own nationally determined contributions (NDCs) to emissions reductions (common but differentiated responsibilities) and then to revise these NDCs over time through an iterative process to deliver progressively more ambitious targets for emissions reduction (moving toward a ban) or mitigation. In reality, neither approach is entirely suited to regulating plastics, so a new approach to treaty-making is required. This new approach should focus on the outcomes desired rather than the practices that need to be regulated.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Elizabeth Kirk, University of Lincoln, Lincoln Law School