Affective Bias without Hemispheric Competition: Evidence for Independent Processing Resources in Each Cortical Hemisphere

Dr Matt Craddock, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology

We assessed the extent of neural competition for attentional processing resources in early visual cortex between foveally presented task stimuli and peripheral emotional distracter images. Task-relevant and distracting stimuli were shown in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) streams to elicit the steady-state visual evoked potential, which serves as an electrophysiological marker of attentional resource allocation in early visual cortex. A taskrelated RSVP stream of symbolic letters was presented centrally at 15 Hz while distracting RSVP streams were displayed at 4 or 6 Hz in the left and right visual hemifields. These image streams always had neutral content in one visual field and would unpredictably switch from neutral to unpleasant content in the opposite visual field. We found that the steady-state visual evoked potential amplitude was consistently modulated as a function of change in emotional valence in peripheral RSVPs, indicating sensory gain in response to distracting affective content. Importantly, the facilitated processing for emotional content shown in one visual hemifield was not paralleled by any perceptual costs in response to the task-related processing in the center or the neutral image stream in the other visual hemifield. Together, our data provide further evidence for sustained sensory facilitation in favor of emotional distracters. Furthermore, these results are in line with previous reports of a “different hemifield advantage” with lowlevel visual stimuli and are suggestive of independent processing resources in each cortical hemisphere that operate beyond lowlevel visual cues, that is, with complex images that impact early stages of visual processing via reentrant feedback loops from higher order processing areas.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science

Valeria Bekhtereva, University of Leipzig

Matt Craddock, University of Lincoln

Matthias M. Muller, University of Leipzig


 

Family Income Gradients in Adolescent Obesity, Overweight and Adiposity Persist in Extremely Deprived and Extremely Affluent Neighbourhoods but Not in Middle-Class Neighbourhoods: Evidence from the UK Millennium Cohort Study

Dr Michael Mireku

We investigated whether family income gradients in obesity, overweight, and adiposity persist at geographic-level deprivation quintiles using a nationally representative cohort of UK adolescents. Data from 11,714 eligible adolescents from the sixth sweep of the Millennium Cohort Study (14 years old) were analysed in this study. The International Obesity Task Force age- and sex-specific thresholds were used to define obesity and overweight. Self-reported family income was standardized using the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)’s equivalised income scale. Geographic-level deprivation was defined by the index of multiple deprivation 2004. Results showed that the prevalence of obesity and overweight was 8.0% and 27.2%, respectively. Mean percentage body fat was 16.9% (standard error, SE = 0.2%) in male and 27.3% (SE = 0.1%) in female adolescents. Risk of obesity, overweight, and adiposity increased with decreasing family income quintiles (p for trend <0.001). After stratifying by geographic-level deprivation quintiles, a U-shaped association emerged, whereby family income gradients in the risk of adolescent obesity and adiposity persisted in extremely affluent and extremely deprived neighbourhoods but attenuated to non-significance in middle-class neighbourhoods. These results focus on the findings from England. Recognition of the persistence of inequalities in the risk of obesity in the most deprived and affluent neighbourhoods may be necessary in planning public health resources and interventions.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Michael Mireku, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology

Alina Rodriguez, Imperial College London, Department of Epidemiology


Electing to Do Women’s Work? Gendered Divisions of Labor in UK Select Committees, 1979-2016

Prof Steve McKay, University of Lincoln, College of Social Science, School of Social and Political Science

Political science has a rich tradition of empirical work on women and gender in governmental institutions. Legislative studies, in particular, has benefited from the attentions of scholars who have sought to “gender political institutions” by emphasizing the gendered aspects of the formal governmental arena. Among the main focuses of these studies are questions around: the substantive representation of women; the recruitment, promotion and behavior of female representatives within legislatures; how best to shift gendered institutional cultures; and whether and how best female representatives are able to access centers of power, accumulate institutional resources and affect decisions on an equal basis once present in governmental institutions

 


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Mark Goodwin, University of Coventry

Stephen Holden Bates, University of Birmingham

Stephen McKay, University of Lincoln


 

Depression mediates cutaneous body image and facial appearance dissatisfaction in insomnia

Dr Kamila Irvine, University of Lincoln, College of Social Science, School of Psychology

This study examined the relationship between dissatisfaction with cutaneous body image and facial appearance with symptoms of insomnia whilst incorporating the mediating role of anxiety and/or depression after accounting for co-morbid sleep disorder symptoms. Participants (n = 241) completed online measures assessing insomnia symptoms, anxiety and depression symptoms, and satisfaction with cutaneous body image and facial appearance. Symptoms of insomnia were independently related to greater dissatisfaction with cutaneous body image and facial appearance in univariate analyses. However, linear regression analyses determined these relationships to be partially mediated by depression, but not anxiety. Expanding on prior research, these findings suggest that whilst increased symptoms of insomnia may influence dissatisfaction with cutaneous and facial features, these relationships may be partially attributed to the experience of depressive symptoms often co-morbid with both insomnia and dermatological complaints. Treatment approaches for individuals with insomnia may benefit from targeting and improving negatively appraised aspects of physical self-perception.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Umair Akram, Sheffield Hallam University, Department of Psychology

Kamila Irvine, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology


Communicating cancer risk in the primary care consultation when using a cancer risk assessment tool: Qualitative study with service users and practitioners

Cancer risk assessment tools are designed to help detect cancer risk in symptomatic individuals presenting to primary care. An early detection of cancer risk could mean early referral for investigations, diagnosis and treatment, helping to address late diagnosis of cancer. It is not clear how best cancer risk may be communicated to patients when using a cancer risk assessment tool to assess their risk of developing cancer.

We aimed to explore the perspectives of service users and primary care practitioners on communicating cancer risk information to patients, when using QCancer, a cancer risk assessment tool.

Participants suggested ways to improve communication of cancer risk information: personalising risk information; involving patients in use of the tool; sharing risk information openly; and providing sufficient time when using the tool during consultations.

Communication of cancer risk information is complex and difficult. We identified strategies for improving communication with patients involving cancer risk estimations in primary care consultations.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Joseph Akanuwe, University of Lincoln, School of Health and Social Care

Sharon Black, University of Lincoln, School of Health and Social Care

Sara Owen, University of Lincoln, School of Health and Social Care

Niro Siriwardena, University of Lincoln, School of Health and Social Care


Searching for faces in crowd chokepoint videos

Dr Kay Ritchie, University of Lincoln, College of Social Science, School of Psychology Dr Robin Kramer, University of Lincoln, College of Social Science, School of Psychology

 

 

 

 

 

Investigations of face identification have typically focused on matching faces to photographic IDs. Few researchers have considered the task of searching for a face in a crowd. In Experiment 1, we created the Chokepoint Search Test to simulate real‐time search for a target. Performance on this test was poor (39% accuracy) and showed moderate associations with tests of face matching and memory. In addition, trial‐level confidence predicted accuracy, and for those participants who were previously familiar with one or more targets, higher familiarity was associated with increased accuracy. In Experiment 2, we found improvements in performance on the test when three recent images of the target, but not three social media images, were displayed during searches. Taken together, our results highlight the difficulties inherent in real‐time searching for faces, with important implications for those security personnel who carry out this task on a daily basis.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Robin Kramer, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology

Sarah Hardy, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology

Kay Ritchie, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology


 

‘Doing’ competitive swimming: Exploring the skilled practices of the competitive swimming lifeworld

Dr Gareth McNarry, University of Lincoln, College of Social Science, School of Sport and Exercise Science Prof Jacquelyn Allen-Collinson, University of Lincoln, College of Social Science, School of Sport and Exercise Science

 

 

 

 

 

Despite a developing literature on various facets of sporting embodiment, there is currently a research lacuna with regard to in-depth analyses of actually ‘doing’ sporting activities within specific physical cultures. In this article, we address that gap by drawing on a developing theoretical literature in sociological phenomenology to investigate a particular physical–cultural domain. Here, we present and analyse data from an ethnographic study of competitive swimmers undertaken in the UK. Responding to calls to explore the domain of ‘body pedagogics’, we investigate the embodied work involved in the skilled practice of ‘doing’ and learning how to ‘do’ competitive swimming. This embodied work plays a key part in the swimmers’ ability to inhabit the competitive swimming life world. In the analysis, we highlight how the acquisition and ‘habituation’ of these body techniques and skilled behaviours are not achieved simply through the repetitive rehearsal of coherent movements over time. These processes are complex, demanding practical experimentation, discovery and the ability to adapt constantly to changes in the environment and the swimmer’s own corporeality.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Gareth McNarry, University of Lincoln and University of Copenhagen

Jacquelyn Allen-Collinson, University of Lincoln

Adam B Evans, University of Copenhagen


Learning in sport: from life skills to existential learning

Prof Jacquelyn Allen-Collinson, University of Lincoln, College of Social Science, School of Sport and Exercise Science

Youth sport is habitually promoted as an important context for learning that contributes to a person’s broader development beyond sport-specific skills. A growing body of research in this area has operated within a life skills discourse that focuses on useful, positive and decontextualised skills in the production of successful and adaptive citizens. In this paper, we argue that the ideological discourse of life skills, underpinned by ideas about sport-based positive youth development, has unduly narrowed the research on learning in sport to only what is deemed functional, teachable, and economically productive. After considering the problems associated with the currently dominant life skills approach, we explore existential learning as an alternative perspective on conceptualising and studying learning in sport. An existential approach provides a non-instrumental theory of learning with an emphasis on discontinuity, relational self and ‘becoming’, opening an avenue for exploring various forms of informal learning under-explored in sport. We discuss the applications of this alternative approach for future research and practice in learning in youth sport.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Noora J Ronkainen, University of Jyväskylä, Department of Psychology

Kenneth Aggerholm, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Department of Physical Education

Tatiana V Ryba, University of Jyväskylä, Department of Psychology

Jacquelyn Allen Collinson, University of Lincoln, School of Sport and Exercise Science


Short- and long-term forms of neural adaptation: An ERP investigation of dynamic motion aftereffects

Dr Andrea Pavan, University of Lincoln, College of Social Science, School of Psychology

Adaptation is essential to interact with a dynamic and changing environment, and can be observed on different timescales. Previous studies on a motion paradigm called dynamic motion aftereffect (dMAE) showed that neural adaptation can establish even in very short timescales. However, the neural mechanisms underlying such rapid form of neural plasticity is still debated. In the present study, short- and long-term forms of neural plasticity were investigated using dynamic motion aftereffect combined with EEG (Electroencephalogram). Participants were adapted to directional drifting gratings for either short (640 msec) or long (6.4 sec) durations. Both adaptation durations led to motion aftereffects on the perceived direction of a dynamic and directionally ambiguous test pattern, but the long adaptation produced stronger dMAE. In line with behavioral results, we found robust changes in the event-related potentials elicited by the dynamic test pattern within 64–112 msec time range. These changes were mainly clustered over occipital and parieto-occipital scalp sites. Within this time range, the aftereffects induced by long adaptation were stronger than those by short adaptation. Moreover, the aftereffects by each adaptation duration were in the opposite direction. Overall, these EEG findings suggest that dMAEs reflect changes in cortical areas mediating low- and mid-level visual motion processing. They further provide evidence that short- and long-term forms of motion adaptation lead to distinct changes in neural activity, and hence support the view that adaptation is an active time-dependent process which involves different neural mechanisms.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Sibel Akyuz, Bilkent University,Interdisciplinary Neuroscience Program, National Magnetic Resonance Research Center and faculty of Arts and Sciences

Andrea Pavan, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology

Utku Kaya, Bilkent University, National Magnetic Resonance Research Center (UMRAM) and University of Michigan, Department of Anesthesiology

Hulusi Kafaligonul, Bilkent University,Interdisciplinary Neuroscience Program and National Magnetic Resonance Research Center (UMRAM)