Doing and undoing gender in male carer/female breadwinner families

Dr Ruth Gaunt, University of Lincoln, College of Social Science, School of Psychology UoL Research

Dr Mariana Lobo Pinho, University of Lincoln, College of Science, School of Chemistry UoL CoS Research

 

 

 

 

This study aimed to explore the allocation of family work among male carer/female breadwinner couples in comparison to traditional couples, in an attempt to identify the most change-resistant aspects of gendered family roles. A sample of 236 parents with children from birth to 5 years old completed extensive questionnaires about their daily routines and allocation of tasks. As hypothesised, primary caregiving fathers and mothers performed a similar share of housework and physical childcare tasks and were more involved in these forms of family work than breadwinning fathers and mothers. Also as hypothesised, primary caregiving mothers assumed a greater share of the emotional care and overall responsibility for childcare than primary caregiving fathers. That is, whereas primary caregiving mothers carried out most of the emotional care and responsibility for childcare with very little involvement of the breadwinning fathers, among role-reversed couples emotional care and responsibility were shared more equally. These findings suggest that overall, role-reversed couples ‘undo’ gender by performing tasks according to their family role rather than prescriptive gender norms. The results further support the distinction between the more malleable forms of family work and the most change-resistant aspects of gendered parenting.


University of Lincoln, College of Science and College of Social Science Research

Dr Mariana Lobo Pinho, University of Lincoln, School of Chemistry

Dr Ruth Gaunt, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology


 

How Does Variation in the Body Composition of Both Stimuli and Participant Modulate Self-Estimates of Men’s Body Size?

When measured in units of body mass index (BMI), how much variation in men’s self-estimates of body size is caused by i) variation in participants’ body composition and ii) variation in the apparent muscle mass and muscle tone of the stimuli being judged? To address this, we generated nine sets of male CGI bodies representing low, mid, and high muscle mass rendered at low, mid, and high muscle tone, from 18.75 to 40 BMI-hse units. BMI-hse units in this study are estimates of BMI derived from calibration equations predicting BMI from waist and hip circumference, age, sex, height, and ethnicity in the Health Survey for England databases. Forty-five healthy adult men estimated their body size using a yes-no paradigm for each combination of muscle mass/tone. We also measured participants’ body composition with Harpenden callipers and their body concerns with psychometric questionnaires. We show that stimulus variation in apparent muscle mass/tone can introduce differences up to ∼2.5 BMI-hse units in men’s self-estimates of body size. Moreover, men with the same actual BMI, but different body composition, showed up to ∼5-7 BMI-hse unit differences in self-estimates of body size. In the face of such large errors, we advocate that such judgments in men should be made instead by simultaneously manipulating both the adiposity and the muscle mass of stimuli which are appropriately calibrated for body composition, so that the participant can match the body size and shape they believe themselves to have to the stimulus they see.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Vicki Groves, Northumbria University, Department of Psychology

Piers Cornelissen, Northumbria University, Department of Psychology

Kristofor McCarty, Northumbria University, Department of Psychology

Sophie Mohamed, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology

Nadia Maalin, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology

Martin Tovee, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology

Katri Cornelissen, Northumbria University, Department of Psychology


 

Fear-Related Signals in the Primary Visual Cortex

Prof Kun Guo, University of Lincoln, College of Social Science, School of Psychology

Neuronal responses in the primary visual cortex (V1) are driven by simple stimuli, but these stimulus-evoked responses can be markedly modulated by non-sensory factors, such as attention and reward [1], and shaped by perceptual training [2]. In real-life situations, neutral visual stimuli can become emotionally tagged by experience, resulting in altered perceptual abilities to detect and discriminate these stimuli [345]. Human imaging [4] and electroencephalography (EEG) studies [6789] have shown that visual fear learning (the acquisition of aversive emotion associated with a visual stimulus) affects the activities in visual cortical areas as early as in V1. However, it remains elusive as to whether the fear-related activities seen in the early visual cortex have to do with feedback influences from other cortical areas; it is also unclear whether and how the response properties of V1 cells are modified during the fear learning. In the current study, we addressed these issues by recording from V1 of awake monkeys implanted with an array of microelectrodes. We found that responses of V1 neurons were rapidly modified when a given orientation of grating stimulus was repeatedly associated with an aversive stimulus. The output visual signals from V1 cells conveyed, from their response outset, fear-related signals that were specific to the fear-associated grating orientation and visual-field location. The specific fear signals were independent of neurons’ orientation preferences and were present even though the fear-associated stimuli were rendered invisible. Our findings suggest a bottom-up mechanism that allows for proactive labeling of visual inputs that are predictive of imminent danger.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Zhihan Li, Beijing Normal University, Institute for Brain Research

An Yan, Beijing Normal University, Institute for Brain Research

Kun Guo, University of Lincoln, School of Pyschology

Wu Li, Beijing Normal University, Institute for Brain Research


 

Care(Less)

Care(Less)

Care(less) is a new 360° film work by artist Lindsay Seers. Using a combination of lens based and digital 360° images, viewed within a virtuality headset, Seers explores the hallucinatory and embodied effect of VR.

In this, her first work using virtual reality technology, visitors can experience what it might feel like to

be in the body of another person – that of an older person whose aged body may not reflect the person

inside and who may be facing challenges in health, abilities and relationships.

Care(less) and its accompanying texts and programme of talks, film screenings and activities investigate

prevalent attitudes to ageing, the nature of care relationships and ways in which the social care system

meets care needs.

The artwork and the exhibition programme respond to current research funded by Wellcome Trust being

undertaken by the University of Brighton, the University of Birmingham and University of Lincoln. The

research is a collaboration between academic researchers, older people, and social care organisations

looking at the experiences of older people receiving care which they pay for themselves.

The exhibition, also funded by the Wellcome Trust under their Research Enrichment programme,

specifically aims to bring academic research to a wider public audience. The research teams have worked

with arts partners Fabrica, Ikon gallery and Threshold (who produce Frequency Festival in Lincoln

biennially), to create the commission which was awarded to Lindsay Seers via an open call.

Care(less) will be presented at Fabrica, Brighton between 5 October and 24 November, at Frequency Festival, Lincoln from 24 -27 October and subsequently at Ikon gallery, Birmingham from 15 – 23 February 2020.

Lindsay Seers’s work came to the fore in Nicolas Bourriaud’s Tate Triennial 2009 with Extramission 6, a work now in the Tate collection. Her installation works, often complex and verging on the ineffable follow a process that aspires to unearth experiences relating to the fragmentary nature of human consciousness.

The research Older people: care and self-funding experiences is collaborative project and based in ‘co- production’. In each site academic researchers are working with co-researchers who are older citizens with an interest in ageing and the issues affecting older people. The co-researchers have been trained in all aspects of research and work with the academics on the research design, data collection, analysis and interpretation and dissemination. The research teams are also working with representatives from local organisations, such as Local Authority Adult Social Care managers and practitioners and third sector care providers in ‘knowledge exchange’ groups. These meet regularly throughout the project to share emergent themes from the research and create a space for discussing these from a range of perspectives on self- funding. The project which runs until July 2020 will be producing a range of materials for policy and practice and for older people, their family members and informal carers. For more information about the project contact:

Prof Mo Ray, MRay@lincoln.ac.uk
www.olderpeopleselffundingcare.com/

Masculinizing Care? Gender, Ethics of Care, and Fathers’ Rights Groups

Dr Ana Jordan, University of Lincoln, School of Social and Political Sciences, UoL CoSS research

This article contributes to theoretical debates around caring masculinity, especially attempts to integrate feminist ethics of care with masculinities scholarship. I apply ethics of care and masculinities theories to an illustrative case study of fathers’ rights group (FRG), (Real) Fathers 4 Justice, who, I argue, employ aspects of care perspectives framed as a “new man/new father” masculinity. Applying ethics of care to analyze caring masculinities demonstrates that men care and that caring masculinity can potentially destabilize dominant notions of masculinity. However, care is also coded masculine in complex, sometimes troubling, ways. The promise of masculinized care in the context of fathers’ rights is limited as, ultimately, gender binaries are reinforced more than they are rendered contingent. As well as contributing to analyses of the gender politics of FRGs, I argue that we should pay careful attention to the contexts within which caring masculinities may be strategically and problematically employed.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Ana Jordan, University of Lincoln, School of Social and Political Sciences


 

Comparison of individual and group-based load-velocity profiling as a means to dictate training load over a six-week strength and power intervention

PURPOSE: To explore the effects of two velocity-based loading methods over a six-week strength and power intervention in resistance trained males.


University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Harry Dorell, University of Lincoln, School of Sport and Exercise Science

Joseph Moore, University of Lincoln, School of Sport and Exercise Science

Thomas Gee, University of Lincoln, School of Sport and Exercise Science