Weather Work in Mountaineering

Dr Lee Crust, University of Lincoln, College of Social Science, School of Sport and Exercise ScienceProf Jacquelyn Allen Collinson, University of Lincoln, College of Social Science, School of Sport and Exercise Science





Over the last few years members of MTOUGH have been fortunate enough to conduct a series of research projects using samples of elite mountaineers. In particular we have published three papers in sport psychology journals that have primarily focused upon mental toughness in relation to decision-making, responses to natural disaster, and behaviours whilst on expedition. In these papers we were joined by Professor Jacquelyn Allen-Collinson whose experience and understanding of the phenomenological method has proved invaluable. Jacquelyn is a sociologist with a particular interest in embodiment and a recent interest in how experiencing changes in weather, and learning from weather encounters can impact upon experiences in physical domains. As such, we couldn’t pass-by the opportunity to collaborate once more, this time in more sociologically-oriented research. The result of our most recent collaboration is a paper that is forthcoming in the journal Body and Society that considers the impact of weather in the experiences of elite mountaineers. The paper is currently in press and should be available soon.

University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Prof Jacquelyn Allen-Collinson, University of Lincoln, School of Sport and Exercise Science

Dr Lee Crust, University of Lincoln, School of Sport and Exercise Science

Dr Christian Swann, Southern Cross University

Marine plastics: Fragmentation, effectiveness and legitimacy in international lawmaking

Much of the plastic rubbish that is now found in our oceans comes from land‐based sources. From plastic bags, to toothbrushes and plastic nurdles, plastic enters the oceans through, for example, discharges or dumping in rivers, from waste dumped on land blowing into watercourses, and from landfill sites which have been built too close to the coastline and are damaged by storms. This article explains the weaknesses in the current law on marine pollution from land‐based sources and activities that pave the way for such widespread pollution of our oceans, before examining possible legal solutions to this problem. The article assesses potential solutions to this problem using insights from literature on fragmentation and on effectiveness and legitimacy of regimes. In constructing this analysis, the article thus develops understandings of when and why the adoption of treaties may be both appropriate and effective.

University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research

Elizabeth A Kirk, University of Lincoln, Lincoln Law School

Naporn Popattanachai, Thammasat University, Faculty of Law


A systematic review to assess the methodological quality of studies on measurement properties for caries risk assessment tools for young children


At present, there are numerous caries risk assessment tools (CRATs) being promoted for disease management. The evidence to inform CRAT selection however is unclear.


This review aimed to assess the strength of evidence to inform the selection of CRATs for children ages 6 years and less.


MEDLINE was the principal search database for this review. Other key databases, the reference lists of included articles, known cariology literature and experts were also consulted. Peer‐reviewed papers describing CRATs and their development methodology were included. The Consensus‐based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist guided the quality assessment. The reporting of the key measurement properties (reliability, validity, and responsiveness) informed the quality assessment.


The search resulted in 10 papers, reporting on eight different CRATs. The identified CRATs were as follows: Caries Management By Risk Assessment (CAMBRA), Cariogram, National University of Singapore CRAT (NUS‐CRAT), MySmileBuddy, Dundee Caries Risk Assessment Model, University of North Carolina Risk Assessment Models, University of Michigan paediatric dental clinic caries risk assessment sheet, and American Academy of paediatric Dentistry (AAPD) CRAT. Common across all CRATs was the lack of information to determine the levels of evidence for the measurement properties of reliability and construct validity. Studies on tools that were assessed as having strong evidence for content validity identified the relevant risk factors for caries in the population being studied, before developing and testing their respective CRATs.


The evidence to inform the selection of current CRATs for children is mostly yet to be established. Overall, the NUS‐CRAT studies reported the most information to inform the assessment of its measurement properties, and as a result, this tool attained a higher quality rating than other CRATs studied.

University of Lincoln, College of Social Science Research 
Bradley Christian
Rebecca Armstrong
Hanny Calache
Lauren Carpenter
Lisa Gibbs
Mark Gussy